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Flashcards in Treatment Models Deck (18):

Problem Solving Approach (Perlman)

Based on the assumption that all human living is a problem-solving process. The ego is seen as a mechanism for solving problems. REality based. Looks at 4 P's; Person, problem, place (agency), and process (therapeutic relationship) in the process of change.


Psychosocial approach (Hollis)

Uses all developmental theories and integrates various aspects of all relevant treatment modalities.


Crisis Intervention (Golan)

A process of actively influencing the psychosocial functioning of individuals during a period of disequilibrium. A state of crisis is time limited, usually 6-8 weeks. Brief intervention during a crisis usually provides maximum therapeutic effect. Sudden onset, quick resolve. Not a hotline approach. SW is pro-active. Life changes, death, divorce, earthquake, job change, etc.
Goals: 1) relieve impact of stress with emotional social resources, 2) return to previous level of functioning, 3) help people strengthen coping mechanisms during the crisis period and develop adaptive coping strategies.


Brief, Planned Short-term or Task Centered Treatment

Restricts the duration of treatment to 8-12 sessions.
Task-centered treatment: Client must be able to acknowledge a precise psychosocial problem, the solution to which is either a specific change in behavior or a change of circumstances. The client must also be willing to work on the problem. (Assessment, set goals, define tasks)


Behavioral approaches

These theories represent the systematic application of principles of learning to the analysis and treatment of behavior. The goal is to modify behavior. The focus is observable behavior - all beh is pertinent, though and affects as well as motor action. E.g. anger managment.


Behavioral approaches - Behavioral Paradigms

A- Respondent or Classical Conditioning (Pavlov): Stimulus response approach to beh.
B- Operant Conditioning (Skinner); Behavior operates on the environment.(E.g.- Child eats dinner, they get reward of dessert)


Specific Behavioral Procedures;

1. Systematic desensitization - anxiety inhibiting response
2- In vivo desensitization
3- Aversion Therapy - any treatment aimed at reducing the attractiveness of a stimulus or behavior by repeatedly pairing it with aversive stimulation of a real or imagined nature.
4- Shaping
5- Flooding
6- Modeling
7- Assertiveness training
8- Contingency contract
9- Sensate focus - used in sex therapy
10- Squeeze technique - used for delaying ejaculation
11- self-instructional training
12- time-out
13.- Token economy
14- Positive Reinforcement- increases probability that beh will occur. Worker praises, gives tokens, or otherwise rewards positive beh.
15- Negative reinforcements: behavior increases because negative/aversive stimulus is removed (e.g remove shock)


Cognitive Approach

Targeted toward thoughts vs behavior.
Self-talk is used.
Emphasis placed on cognitive skills for problem solving.
Treatment: Social workers can facilitate cognitive change


Rational Emotive therapy (RET)

teaching client to counter self-defeating thinking with new, non-distressing self statements. ("What could you be doing?")
Gestalt: experiential, here and now, often used with groups as well as individuals. Bringing old stuff to the here and now.


Family Therapy

alignment/boundaries/interventions/developmental processes.
Views family as a system of interacting parts in which chage in any part affects the functioning of the whole, family tx treats the family as a unified whole.


Theories of family therapy

1.Structural family tx- Minuchin, Stresses importance of family organization for functioning of the group. Emphasis on boundaries: interpersonal boundaries, boundaries with the outside world define the family unit, and generational boundaries.
2- multi-generational approach (Bowen)
3- Strategic family therapy (Haley/Palo Alto group)- relabeling, paradoxical instruction
4- Behavioral approach- Based in social learning theory and/or exchange theory


Group Work

Social group work: The group is the major helping agent. Types include: counseling groups, groups with shared problems, activity groups, action groups, self-help groups, natural groups, closed vs open groups, structured groups, crisis groups, reference groups.



treatment approach in which roles are enacted in a group context. Members of the group recreate their problems in living and devote themselves to the role dilemmas of each member.


Group Psycholtherapy

Treatment of patents with mental illness: uncovering procedures, the achievement of insight into unconscious motivations and other intrapsychic processes.


States of Group Development

Formings - Pre-affiliation: development of trust
Storming- Power and control: struggle for individual autonomy and group identification.
Norming- Intimacy; utilizing self in service of the group
Performing- Differentiation: acceptance of each other as distinct individuals.
Adjourning- Separation/Termination: independence.


Factors in Group Cohesion

- group size: optimal 5-10
- homogeneity: similarity of group members
- participation in goal and norm setting for group.
-interdependence: dependent on one another for achievement of common goals
- external threat: increases cohesiveness
- member stability: frequent changes in membership decreases cohesiveness.


Contra-indications for group treatment

client in crisis, compulsive need for attention, actively psychotic, paranoid, suicidal
Borderline only in a group of borderlines.


Community Social Work/Community Organization

Emphasis is on social and environmental factors, not psychological needs, stress on prevention, concern with social reform.
Models include; locality development, social planning, social action, and social reform.
Prevention: primary- to prevent
Secondary: to treat symptoms, what you do to decrease the problem
Tertiary: to reduce disability in chronic problems, crime, infant mortality,