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Flashcards in Treatment Models Deck (18):
1

Problem Solving Approach (Perlman)

Based on the assumption that all human living is a problem-solving process. The ego is seen as a mechanism for solving problems. REality based. Looks at 4 P's; Person, problem, place (agency), and process (therapeutic relationship) in the process of change.

2

Psychosocial approach (Hollis)

Uses all developmental theories and integrates various aspects of all relevant treatment modalities.

3

Crisis Intervention (Golan)

A process of actively influencing the psychosocial functioning of individuals during a period of disequilibrium. A state of crisis is time limited, usually 6-8 weeks. Brief intervention during a crisis usually provides maximum therapeutic effect. Sudden onset, quick resolve. Not a hotline approach. SW is pro-active. Life changes, death, divorce, earthquake, job change, etc.
Goals: 1) relieve impact of stress with emotional social resources, 2) return to previous level of functioning, 3) help people strengthen coping mechanisms during the crisis period and develop adaptive coping strategies.

4

Brief, Planned Short-term or Task Centered Treatment

Restricts the duration of treatment to 8-12 sessions.
Task-centered treatment: Client must be able to acknowledge a precise psychosocial problem, the solution to which is either a specific change in behavior or a change of circumstances. The client must also be willing to work on the problem. (Assessment, set goals, define tasks)

5

Behavioral approaches

These theories represent the systematic application of principles of learning to the analysis and treatment of behavior. The goal is to modify behavior. The focus is observable behavior - all beh is pertinent, though and affects as well as motor action. E.g. anger managment.

6

Behavioral approaches - Behavioral Paradigms

A- Respondent or Classical Conditioning (Pavlov): Stimulus response approach to beh.
B- Operant Conditioning (Skinner); Behavior operates on the environment.(E.g.- Child eats dinner, they get reward of dessert)

7

Specific Behavioral Procedures;

1. Systematic desensitization - anxiety inhibiting response
2- In vivo desensitization
3- Aversion Therapy - any treatment aimed at reducing the attractiveness of a stimulus or behavior by repeatedly pairing it with aversive stimulation of a real or imagined nature.
4- Shaping
5- Flooding
6- Modeling
7- Assertiveness training
8- Contingency contract
9- Sensate focus - used in sex therapy
10- Squeeze technique - used for delaying ejaculation
11- self-instructional training
12- time-out
13.- Token economy
14- Positive Reinforcement- increases probability that beh will occur. Worker praises, gives tokens, or otherwise rewards positive beh.
15- Negative reinforcements: behavior increases because negative/aversive stimulus is removed (e.g remove shock)

8

Cognitive Approach

Targeted toward thoughts vs behavior.
Self-talk is used.
Emphasis placed on cognitive skills for problem solving.
Treatment: Social workers can facilitate cognitive change

9

Rational Emotive therapy (RET)

teaching client to counter self-defeating thinking with new, non-distressing self statements. ("What could you be doing?")
Gestalt: experiential, here and now, often used with groups as well as individuals. Bringing old stuff to the here and now.

10

Family Therapy

alignment/boundaries/interventions/developmental processes.
Views family as a system of interacting parts in which chage in any part affects the functioning of the whole, family tx treats the family as a unified whole.

11

Theories of family therapy

1.Structural family tx- Minuchin, Stresses importance of family organization for functioning of the group. Emphasis on boundaries: interpersonal boundaries, boundaries with the outside world define the family unit, and generational boundaries.
2- multi-generational approach (Bowen)
3- Strategic family therapy (Haley/Palo Alto group)- relabeling, paradoxical instruction
4- Behavioral approach- Based in social learning theory and/or exchange theory


12

Group Work

Social group work: The group is the major helping agent. Types include: counseling groups, groups with shared problems, activity groups, action groups, self-help groups, natural groups, closed vs open groups, structured groups, crisis groups, reference groups.

13

Psychodrama

treatment approach in which roles are enacted in a group context. Members of the group recreate their problems in living and devote themselves to the role dilemmas of each member.

14

Group Psycholtherapy

Treatment of patents with mental illness: uncovering procedures, the achievement of insight into unconscious motivations and other intrapsychic processes.

15

States of Group Development

Formings - Pre-affiliation: development of trust
Storming- Power and control: struggle for individual autonomy and group identification.
Norming- Intimacy; utilizing self in service of the group
Performing- Differentiation: acceptance of each other as distinct individuals.
Adjourning- Separation/Termination: independence.

16

Factors in Group Cohesion

- group size: optimal 5-10
- homogeneity: similarity of group members
- participation in goal and norm setting for group.
-interdependence: dependent on one another for achievement of common goals
- external threat: increases cohesiveness
- member stability: frequent changes in membership decreases cohesiveness.

17

Contra-indications for group treatment

client in crisis, compulsive need for attention, actively psychotic, paranoid, suicidal
Borderline only in a group of borderlines.

18

Community Social Work/Community Organization

Emphasis is on social and environmental factors, not psychological needs, stress on prevention, concern with social reform.
Models include; locality development, social planning, social action, and social reform.
Prevention: primary- to prevent
Secondary: to treat symptoms, what you do to decrease the problem
Tertiary: to reduce disability in chronic problems, crime, infant mortality,