Flashcards in Theories of Human Development Deck (15):
Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud)
Transference Counter Transference is in this model.
Individual is viewed as the product of his past based on the concept of psychic determinism. Unresolved conflict is the basis for psychopatholigy. A fixation is a point in development where, for whatever reason, there is a failure to resolve a conflict. 3 levels of mental activity: unconscious, preconscious, conscious. Mechanisms of defense are unconscious and a function of ego. Normal vs abnormal. Developmental patterns of the individual. Social process.
Stages of psychosexual development
Development occurs as a result of drive energy (libidinal or aggressive) which is invested in a different organ system at each stage: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital.
Treatment goal of Psychoanalytic Theory
to resolve intrapsychic conflict; treatment involves dealing with the repressed material in the unconscious using; clarification, confrontation, interpretation, working through.
Psychoanalytic Theory - Structural Theory
ID/birth: need gratifying, primary process thinking, unconscious discharge tension
Ego/5 mos age: mediator btw id and ego, between internal and external reality, Adaptive capacity in relation to external reality
Superego/5 years: seat of conscience, ego ideal, sense of right and wrong, uses internal and external rewards or punishments to control and regulate id impulse.
Stages of Psychsexual Development (Freud)
1. Oral/0-18 mos., incorporative, identifies world thru mouth, libido centered in oral zone, dependency needs must be externally met.
2. Anal/18-36 mos, elimination and retention, holding on and letting go, Regulation of impulses begins, some self-control, conflict with parents, libido is anally centered.
3. Phallic(oedipal)/ 36 mos-6 years- Affection directed to parent of opposite sex, rivalry with same sex parent, fear of retaliation from same sex parent, libido invested in genital area.
4. Latency/6-11 yrs., Formal learning occurs, peer friendships develop, same sex peer relationships are primary, energy is invested in world outside of family and self.
5. Genital/puberty(11-15)/Adolescense (11-19)- Intense love now capable of sexualization, egotistic and altruistic, ambivalence toward parents and other adults. Energy is invested in self.
Ego Psychology (Erikson)
Pro-Social Theory- Personality develops as a result of interaction wtih and mastery of the social environment with a progressive development throughout the life cycle. Looks at functioning of the ego in terms of reality testing, etc.
Ego Psychology (Erikson)- Psycho-Social stages of development
1. Trust vs mistrust - 0-12 mos
2. Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt 18-36 mo
3. Initiative vs Guilt- 3-6 yrs
4. Industry vs Inferiority- 6-11 years
5. Identity vs Role confusion-11-18 yr
6. Intimacy vs Isolation- 19-30 yr
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation- 30-65 yr
8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair- 65 + yr
Ego Psychology - Mechanisms of Defense
automatic, involuntary, usually unconscious psychological activity by which human beings attempt to exclude unacceptable thoughts, urges, threats, impulses, etc because of fear of disapproval, punishment, or other negative outcomes.
Ego Psychology - Major Mechanisms of Defense
Repression, Conversion, Denial, Displacement, Dissociation, idealization, identification, isolation of affect, projection, reaction formation, regression, splitting (borderline), devaluation (narcissistic)
Ego Psychology - Treatment objective
Geared to enhancing the effective and efficient functioning of the ego in managing internal and external stress.
Object Relations Theory (Mahler)
A development of a consolidated sense of "self" as the result of separation and individualtion of the self from the love object, usually the mother. 4 substages: attachment, separation individuation, and object constancy. Describes development from ages 0-3 years. Treatment geared to enhancing the self object differentiation.
Cognitive Developmental Theory (Piaget)
mirrors psych/physical development
4 stages of cognitive development: Sensorimotor (0-2 yr), Preoperational (2-7 yr), Concrete Operational (7-11 yr), and Formal Operations (11 + years). Completed around 11 + years.
1. Intelligence: stable, predictable, systematic, orderly
2. Schemata: Action sequences and behavior patterns, organization and adaption
3. Assimilation: Tendency of an organism to draw the resources of the environment toward itself inward, the integration of external elements into the evolving structure of the organism.
4. Accomodation- tendency of an organism to adapt to the events of the environment.
5. Equilibrium: Steady state of cognitive processes which is maintained by a balance of assimilation and accommodation, a balance btw person and environment.
Moral Developmental Theory (Kohlberg)
Moral reasoning does not have to parallel cognitive development in that one may never get beyond a low level of moral reasoning. Levels include: Stage 1/Preconventional, Stage 2/Conventional, Stage 3/Post conventional