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Flashcards in Research Deck (29):

Purpose of Research

Explore for new knowledge or verify existing knowledge. It is accomplished in a systematic way with standardized, formal procedures.


Steps of Research

1. Problem formulation: Hypotheses that lend themselves to measurement.
2. Study design: Guides collection of data.
3. Methodology: Including measurement of techniques, setting, population
4. Data Collection:
5. Analysis of Results
6. Dissemination of results


Independent variables

Sometimes referred to as the explanatory variables, are those which "cause" the dependent variable to change in some way.


Dependent variables

sometimes referred to as the response variable, the variable which is caused to change by the independent variable. It responds to the independent variable.


Intervening Variable

those factors which in some way moderate(increase or decrease) the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable.


Research Design and Related Measurement Strategies:
Quasi-experimental design:

Always has 2 or more groups being studied, each of which receives different treatment options or no treatment. If there is a treatment group and a no treatment group, the no treatment group is called the control group or the comparison group. Used in agencies Uses pre-test post-test measurement strategy:
Pretest Treat. int posttest
Group 1: X1 O1 X1
Group 2: X2 O2 X2


Research Design and Related Measurement Strategies:
Single Subject Design

consists of a variety of methods of research used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment intervention with 1 client or 1 client system. Single subject design research is the most useful type of design for evaluating private practice. uses ABAB measurement strategy:
Baseline Intervention Baseline

Other ie; ABAB ABACA


Sampling Strategies

A sample is taken from a total population to represent that population.
1. Probability sample: participants are randomly selected; every individual considered for the study has an equal opportunity to be included in the sample to be studied.
2. Non-probability sample: sample of convenience. that is, whoever is available and willing to participate in the study. Snowball sample.



1. Correlation coefficient ("r" stands for coefficient): Numerical index indicating degree to which 2 variables are associated with each other.
The closer an r value gets to 1, the stronger the association. Strong correlation= largest number close to either +1
Weakest correlation= smallest number close to zero

2. Chi Square X 2 power, or t test. Could be student t-test.


Measurement issues:

Consistency in the measurement of a variable (Test Retest)


Measurement issues:

Internal validity: The confidence with which we can say that a relationship exists between variables.
External validity: How valid the results are for other populations; some times referred to as "generalizability".


Ethical issues in research

1. Informed consent
2. Voluntary participation
3. Confidentiality
4. Do no harm


Program Evaluation:
What is it?

The systematic application of research methods in assessing the planning, implementation, and utility of social intervention programs.


Program Evaluation:
Needs Assessment

Verify that the problem exists. A need assessment is essential to identify the target population of the intended program or existing program.


Program Evaluation:Needs assessment

The subject of the evaluation, may be individual, groups, geographically and politically related areas or physical units (houses, roads)
1- Population at risk- segment of the population that is likely to develop a condition.
2- Population at Need- group of potential targets who currently have the condition
3- Incidence- number of new cases of a problem that are identified or arise during a specified time.
4- prevalence- refers to # of existing cases at a specific time.


Program Evaluation:Needs Assessment
procedures for identifying targets include:

1. Key Informant Approach: informal survey of knowledgeable leaders who have knowledge of the community and leadership potential.
2. Community Forum Approach: gathering together members of a community to gain citizen involvement and to obtain estimates about incidence and prevalence of particular problems and targets.
3. Rates under treatment: examing estimates of target populations via services utilized in other similar communities. Can also be used to examine existing program coverage by comparing rates with existing service records and statistics
4. Social Indicators approach: Man federal, state, and local offices maintain statistical records which may be used for estimating targets.
5. Surveys and Census: most direct and usually the most accurate although can be expensive to obtain.


Determining the focus of the evaluation

1. Program Planning or Conceptualization and Design: What is extend & distribution of target problem? Costs and relation to benefits.
2. Monitoring and Accountability: Is program reaching specific target. Are efforts being conducted as specified in program design.
3. Assessment of Program Utility and outcome: Is program effective in achieving intended goals? Can results be explained by some alternative process that does not include program.what are costs to deliver services.



Coordinated activities of a department of SW or a social welfare agency necessary to transform policy into service. It is a method of SW practice used to plan assign, coordinate, evaluation and mediate the tasks, functions, activities, and personnel that are called upon to achieve certain specified organizational goals. Administration and management are synonymous terms.


Specific roles fall into 2 categories: Maintenance and service

1. Setting and prioritizing goals
2. Planning the means for goal attainment, including the acquisition or resources
3. Controlling and coordination the performance of organizational members.
4. Negotiating and problem solving
5. Developing and motivation staff
6. communicating and managing information
7. monitoring the quality and quantity of services delievered to clients.
8. Assessing future needs of the organization.
9. Representing the organization to the eternal environment
10. Management also has a responsibility to maintain the ethical standards and tone for the organization.


Administration and management also involves concepts like TEAM WORK, communication theory, and role theories.

Also different management philosophies:
Management by objective: setting goals (objectives) each year,
Theory X: management oriented to the tasks which need to be accomplished.
Theory Y: management style oriented to the growth and skills of the individual.



a problem solving process in which the consultants special expertise if brought to bear on current problems in which the consultee is less experienced and/or less knowledgeable.


Consultation- Specific Roles

1. Facilitator, motivator and role model
2. Clarifies consequences of different alternatives
3. Helps the consultee think systematically and objectively about the problem so as to increase options.


Consultation- Process of consultation

1. Assessment & problem formulation
2. Negotiation of the contract
3. Mutual setting of the goals and objectives
4. Determination of the strategies for action
5. Implementation
6. Measuring the implementation and
7. Reporting outcomes


Consultation- Types of Consultation

1. Client or Case centered; usually based a specific case or type of cases
2. Consultee centered; such as clinical or ethical consultation which is given regardless of the specific case and is focused on the specific issue with which the consultee needs help (ie how to do child tx, engaging a difficult family)
3. Program consultation- involves the consultant in focusing on the organizational dynamics


Consultation- Basic principles to keep in mind

1. Consultation must have a purpose, a problem, and a systematic process
2. The consultee is free to reject the help so that the effectiveness of the consultation depends on the value of the ideas to the consultee, not on the status of the expert.
3. The relationship between the consultant and the consultee is the core of the process hence the consultant must be knowledgeable of the substantive issue of the problem to be addressed as well as skilled in the process of consultation.



a method of social work by which individuals are socialized into the progession


Supervision - Specific Roles

1. Maintenance of standards of practice and professional conduct.
2. An administrative and educational process to help supervisees further develop and refine their skills.
3. Provide quality assurance for the cliends and


Supervision- Basic Principles to keep in mind

1. There is an evaluation component to supervision but there is also a supportive role of supervision; however, supervision is not therapy
2. Supervision is focused on getting the job done in the most effective and efficient manner possible.
3. Supervision is not voluntary. The supervisor has authority, power, and control over the supervisee.


Cultural Compentence

- acknowledge the difference
-awareness of the factors that contribute to /orientation and values
-discrimination and prejudice are real
-Don't generalize
There are culture and class-bound values. Laws are not subjected to culture.