Treatment, Prevention, Control of Viral Diseases Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Virology > Treatment, Prevention, Control of Viral Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Treatment, Prevention, Control of Viral Diseases Deck (54)
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1

How do Neuraminidase inhibitors prevent the release of virus?

Prevent release of virus and spread of virus because hemagglutinin of virus is still bound/attached to the sialic acid containing receptors on surface of infected cell.

2

Dry heat sterilization method

Hot air oven, at least two hours at 160c

3

Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Treatment of infectious diseases by drugs (chemical compounds) that are inhibitory or lethal to the pathogenic microbe

4

Resistance to Amantadine occurs by

Changes in amino acids that line the M2 channel, changes prevent the drug from plugging the channel

5

Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animal -DIVA 

Vaccination with only live attenuated vaccines leads to a population of an antibody response that does not differ from the antibody response developed after natural infection.

 

Use of DIVA marker vaccines have a portion of the pathogen - less antigens than natrual strains

6

Antiviral Drugs

Class of medication used specifically for treating vial infections

7

Examples of Nucleoside Analog Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTI's)

Zidovudine (ZDV) /  Azidothymidine (AZT)

Didanosine (ddI)

 

8

Targets for anti-retroviral therapy

Reverse transcriptase

Protease

Integrase

Fusion

9

Ways that live-attenuated virus vaccines are produced

Produced from naturally occuring attenuated viruses

Produced by attenuation of viruses by serial passage in cultured cells

Produced by attenuation of viruses by serial passage in heterologous host

Produced by attenuation of viruses by selection of cold-adapted mutants and reassortments

10

Types of non-replicating virus vaccines

Vaccines produced from inactivated whole virions

Vaccines produced from purifed native viral proteins

11

Internal Farm Biosecurity

Measures taken to combat spread of an infectious disease within the farm

12

Synthetic tricyclic amine of the adamantane family

Acts as both antiviral and anti-parkinson drug

 

Amantadine

13

Moist Heat Sterilization Method

Use of steam

Autoclave heated to 121c for at least 15 min at 15psi

14

T/F - Acyclovir is nontoxic to uninfected host cells

True

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Herpesvirus thymindine kinase and herpes virus DNA polymerase are not found in uninfected cells

15

Mechanism of ZDV / AZT

Resembles thymine deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate, reverse transcriptase cleaves two phosphates and inserts AZT monophosphate inot the cDNA that is being synthesized from viral RNA

16

Antisepsis

Application of a liquid antimicrobial chemical to skin or living tissue to inhibit or destroy microorganisms

17

Major membrane glycoproteins found on the surface of influenza virus

Neuraminidase (NA)

Hemagglutinin (HA)

18

Sterilization

Process that destroys or eliminates may or all pathogenic microorganisms, except bacterial spores on inanimate objects

19

Compared to antibiotics there are (more/less) antivirals available

Less

20

Mechanism of action of Amantadine

  1. Compound clog M2 channel and prevent it from pumping protons into the virion
  2. Viral RNAs remain bound to M1 and cannot enter nucleus

21

Non-Replicating Virus Vaccines

Vaccines produced from inactivated whole virions

22

Amantadine inhibits the replication of most strains of what virus

Influenza A viruses

23

Farm Biosecurity

Comprises all measures taken to minimize the risk of the introduction and spread of infectious agents

24

General farm biosecurity measures

Housing and management

All in All out housing system

Vermin and bird control

Purchasing policy

Visitor policy

25

Mechanism of Action of Acyclovir

  1. Acyclovir molecules → Acyclovir monophosphate by thymidine kinase enzyme
  2. Host cell adds two phosphates to acyclovir triphosphate.  Transported to the nucleus
  3. Two phosphates are cleaved by virus to form acyclovir monophosphate
  4. Acyclovir monophosphate incorporated into  growing DNA strand in place of a G base by Herpes Simplex DNA polymerase enzyme
  5. DNA stops growing - lacks attachment point necessary for insertion of additional nucleotides

26

Applies to animals/ persons who are known to be ill with contagious disease

Isolation

27

Major toxicities of AZT/ZDV

Anemia

Granulocytopenia

28

Applies to those who have been exposed to contagious disease

Quarantine

29

Antiviral Drugs

Drugs that interfere with the ability of a virus to infiltrate a target cell or target different stages of replication/synthesis of components required for replication of the virus

30

Live- Attenuated Virus Vaccine

Vaccines produced from naturally occurring attenuated viruses