Tx of Ovarian and Bladder Cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Tx of Ovarian and Bladder Cancer Deck (22):
1

Describe epithelial ovarian carcinomas

This is a common gynecologic malignancy with risk factors including fam hx of similar cancers in 1st degree relatives and BRCA1/2 mutations

 

2

What serum marker is commonly used to measure EOC progression/proliferation?

CA-125

3

How are EOCs staged?

By confinement to the ovaries or lack of

E.g. Stage I is confined to 1 or both ovaries, Stage II is spread to other areas of the pelvis, Stage III is spread to nearby lymph nodes, and Stage IV is mets to lung, liver, bone, and as pleural effusion

4

What are the treatment options of EOC?

May involve a combo of surgery (bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy), radiation, and chemo

5

What chemo drugs are commonly used in EOC Tx?

Commonly a platinum drug in combo with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, or paclitaxel. For advanced disease, these are given IV but for local disease pts receive a 1-2L instilled volume of drugs that is retained up to 2 hrs then drained off to ensure adeuqate coverage of peritoneal surfaces

6

Describe the progression of bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer begins in the cells lining the urothelial surface, the ones that are in frequent contact with carcinogenic substances (especially in smokers!!). With progression of the tumor, there is increased penetration through the lamina propria into the underlying muscle, and the potential of mets

7

What is the most common presenting symptom of bladder carcinoma?

hematuria

8

How is superficial bladder cancer treated?

trans-urethral resection of the cancer, often followed by intravesicle instillation of a high conc of chemo drugs. Where the tumor progresses, chemo-radiation is employed, and possibly cystectomy if needed. 

9

What are the most common chemo drugs used for intravesical instillation?

mitomycin and BCG

10

How does BCG instillation work?

It binds to urothelial cells, attracts APCs,a nd ultimately leads to production of a host of immune system effector cells, including CTLs and NKs. This immune response can be detected within hrs and persist for days

11

How do Carboplatin and Cisplatin work?

They form DNA intrastrand crosslinks and adducts

12

How does cyclophosphamide work?

It is a pro-drug of active alkylating moiety

13

How does doxorubicin work?

It is an intercalator, free radical generator, and topo II inhibitor

14

How does Mitomycin C work?

alkylating agent

15

What is Thiotepa?

Thiotepa is a small molecular weight drug that can pentrate urothelial tissue that forms by forming DNA intrastrand cross-links via diethylenethiophosphoramide after metabolic hydrolysis cleaves aziridine.

16

What are the AEs of Carboplatin?

Allergic rxns; Dose-related myelosuppression

cumulative anemia

Dose-related N/V, dyscrasia, and hepatic and renal dysfunction

17

What are the AEs of Cisplatin?

Allergic rxns; Dose-related nephrotoxicity, myelosuppression, and N/V

Significant ototoxicity in children

18

What are the AEs of Cyclophosphamide?

blood dyscrasas

hemorrhagic cystitis

pulmonary fibrosis

amenorrhea/infertility

19

What are the AEs of Doxorubicin?

CHF

hepatic disease

myelosuppression

20

What are the AEs of Mitomycin C?

Pancytopenias when used IV

chemical cystitis, contact dermatitis but also as palmar and plantar erythemas if contact is made with instillate solution or voided volume

pulmonary infiltrates with dyspnea and unproductive cough

21

What are the AEs of Paclitaxel?

taxane hypersensitivity, myelosuppression, myalgia and arthralgia

22

What are the AEs of Thiotepa?

pancytopenia (when used IV)- dose limiting

dysuria, urinary retention, chemical/hemorrhagic cystitis and renal dysfunction