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Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (42)
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1
Q

Convergent

A

Collide

2
Q

Divergent

A

Divide (rift valleys)

3
Q

Transform

A

Slide (earthquakes)

4
Q

Where are destructive boundaries and what happens there

A

An oceanic plate collides with a continental one, and the denser oceanic plate is forced beneath the continental plate. melting under the pressure, and fold mountains are formed

5
Q

What happens at constructive (divergent) plate boundaries

A

The sea floor spreads and a new crust is formed, and often volcanic islands are created

6
Q

Explain convection currents

A
  • The earth’s core heats up magma
    • The heated magma rises
      • The magma reaches the surface, cools, and sinks
7
Q

List features of constructive plate margins

A
  • New crust
  • Ocean ridges
  • Submarine volcanoes and volcanic islands
    • Rift valleys
8
Q

List the features of destructive plate margins

A
  • Ocean trenches
  • Fold mountains
    • Explosive volcanoes
9
Q

Give an example of:

  • Ocean trench
  • Fold mountains
  • Explosive volcano
  • New crust
  • Ocean ridge
  • Submarine volcano
    • Rift valley
A
  • Mariana trench
  • Andes Mountains
  • Mount Merapi
  • Mid Atlantic
  • Mid Atlantic Ridge
  • Surtsey Iceland
    • Thingvellir Iceland
10
Q

What are the two types of crust and which is thicker

A

Oceanic and continental, continental is thicker

11
Q

What are the crust and upper mantel known as

A

The lithosphere

12
Q

Which bit of the mantle has convection currents

A

Lower mantle

13
Q

What’s the core made of

A

Iron and nickel

14
Q

What are the craters in supervolcanos called

A

Calderas

15
Q

What are lahars

A

A mixture of mud and water (origninally ice), and dust and ash

16
Q

What is a pyroclastic flow

A

A cloud of ash and dust that descends a slope at 1000 degrees

17
Q

What are the different types of volcanoes

A

Shield volcanoes and composite volcanoes

18
Q

Give an example of a composite volcano and a shield volcano

A

Shield - Mauna Loa, Hawaii

Composite - Mount Saint Helens

19
Q

What is the difference between focus and epicentre

A

Focus - the point below the ground where the earthquake starts

Epicentre - The point on the surface above the focus

20
Q

What are the hazards of earthquakes

A

Shakes, tsunamis, landslide, liquefaction

21
Q

What tectonic related disaster happened on everest

A

An avalanche (18 dead, 60 injured)

22
Q

Give a couple of statistics about the Japan tsunami

A
  • It happened in March 2011
  • 9.1 on Richter Scale
    • over 15,000 dead
23
Q

How can we detect earthquakes

A
  • Detecting radon gas
  • Laser beans detect movements in plates
    • Seismographs pick up vibrations
24
Q

What’s the alternative to the richter scale

A

The Mercalli scale

25
Q

What has the California government told people to do if there’s an earthquake

A
  • Turn off gas
    • Have a fire extinguisher and emergency kit
26
Q

What are anti earthquake things we can put on/in buildings

A
  • Foundations deep in bedrock
  • Rolling weights on roof
    • Rubber shock absorbers
27
Q

What are the negatives of earthquake proof buildings

A

They’re unaffordable for LICs

28
Q

What measures can we take to limit the impacts of earthquakes

A
  • Quake proof buildings
  • Warning sirens
  • Earthquake drills
    • Monitoring equipment
29
Q

How many people commute in and out of cardiff weekly

A
  • 78,000 in
    • 33,900 out
30
Q

What are the steps in the rural urban continuum

A

Mega city, city, large urban area, town, subarbanised village, village, hamlet, isolated farm house

31
Q

What is a possible case study for counter urbanisation

A

Llantwit Major

32
Q

What are the different types of places to build on

A

Greenfield and brownfield sites

33
Q

What’s an example of town regeneration

A

Gloucester docks

34
Q

What were introduced to stop cities and towns from expanding

A

Green belts

35
Q

What are the types of erosion

A

Abrasion, attrition, hydraulic action, solution

36
Q

Abrasion

A

Stones and material hit the river bed and wear them away

37
Q

Attrition

A

Stones in the river collide and break down

38
Q

Hydraulic action

A

The force of water hitting the river bed and banks

39
Q

Solution

A

The acidic river water dissolves calcium carbonate rocks

40
Q

Describe how valleys are created

A
  • The river erodes downwards in its upper course
  • The sides of this trench are broken down from weathering
    • The weathered material travels through gravity and rainfall into the river
41
Q

When are waterfalls created

A

When rivers hit softer rock

42
Q

Waterfall terms

A
  • Overhang
  • Undercutting
    • Plunge pool