Unit 2 Flashcards

1
Q

What are the types of evidence for climate change?

A
  • Fossils
  • Ice cores
  • Tree rings (how long growing season was)
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2
Q

What is the Milankovitch cycle?

A

The process by which the planet’s proximity to the sun varies, known as eccentricity. In terms of obliquity (how straight earth’s rotation is) the earth tilts. Finally, it wobbles on its axis.

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3
Q

How do we release greenhouse gases?

A

Deforestation, burning fossil fuels, farming animals

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4
Q

What are the natural elements to the greenhouse effect?

A

Animals breathe out carbon dioxide, and when volcanoes erupt they release carbon into the atmosphere

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5
Q

How many types of atmospheric cell are there?

A

Three

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6
Q

What are the three types of atmospheric cell

A

Polar cells, ferrel cells (middle), hadley cell (equator)

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7
Q

What are the stores of carbon?

A

The air, the soil, plants, fossil fuels, animals

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8
Q

What happens to carbon during photosynthesis?

A

Carbon goes from the atmosphere to plants

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9
Q

What is the difference between climate and weather?

A

Weather is temporary, climate is a trend

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10
Q

What are the factors of weather variation in the UK?

A
  • Latitude
  • Altitude
  • Coast proximity
    • East/west
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11
Q

How does being in the West affect places?

A

Weather systems moving across the Atlantic hit the West first, making it more rainy.

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12
Q

What air mass do we get from the North?

A

The Arctic Maritime air mass, which brings wet and cold air

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13
Q

What air mass do we get from the east?

A

The Polar Continental air mass, which brings dry summer and cold winters

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14
Q

What air mass do we get from the south?

A

The Tropical Continental air mass, which brings hot dry air

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15
Q

What air mass do we get from the south west?

A

The tropical maritime air mass, which brings warm, moist air

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16
Q

What air mass do we get from the North West?

A

The polar maritime air mass, bringing cold, showery weather

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17
Q

How do cities affect climate?

A

They have a microclimate - buildings release internal heat, and tall buildings block wind, while tarmac absorbs heat. The result is higher temperatures

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18
Q

How many degrees warmer is a city of a million than its surrounding areas?

A

2 degrees to 5 degrees

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19
Q

What is a large scale ecosystem known as?

A

A biome

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20
Q

Where does the Tundra cover?

A

Most of the North

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21
Q

What kind of place is classified as a desert?

A

Somewhere that gets less than 25cm of rain per year

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22
Q

What do biotic and abiotic mean

A

Biotic - living

Abiotic - not living

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23
Q

What is succession?

A

When plant and animal communities give way to one another until a climax is reached

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24
Q

How does succession happen?

A

A pioneer species colonises bare ground, the decay of plants produces nutrients which allows more plants to grow, and soils develop to allow bigger plants to grow, until a dominant species invades, completing the succession.

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25
Q

What are the four layers in a rainforest?

A

The shrub layer, under canopy, canopy, and emergent layer

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26
Q

List two adaptions of the tropical rainforest

A

Lianas - woody vines which use trees to climb to the canopy

Buttress roots - roots which stretch from the ground to two metres or more up the trunk

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27
Q

Where are savannas?

A

Between a tropical rainforest and desert

28
Q

What seasons do savannas have?

A

A wet and a dry season

29
Q

List two adaptions from the savannah

A
  • The Baobab Tree, which grows over 30 metres in height and 7 metres in diameter, with fireproof bark and shallow roots that capture water as soon as it rains
    • The acacia tree, which has a broad, flat canopy to reduce water loss, and thorns on branches
30
Q

What are endemic speices?

A

Species that are unique to one ecosystem

31
Q

What key services are provided by tropical rainforests?

A
  1. Regulating air quality and climate
  2. Providing resources like wood and fuel
  3. Rain making
  4. Nutrient cycling
32
Q

What key services are provided by savannahs?

A

Providing food, building material, and attracting tourism

33
Q

What has the UK done to its forests?

A

It has removed deciduous forests for farmland

34
Q

What are the advantages of deforestation?

A

Infrastructure, profits, and raw materials

35
Q

What are the disadvantages of deforestation?

A

Fertile soils are washed away, animal habitats are lost, and profits are swiftly given to large companies

36
Q

What is a case study for use of ecosystems?

A

Gwynt y Mor offshore wind farm - 15km off the North Coast of Wales. It is the 2nd largest offshore wind farm in the world, costing £2 billion.

37
Q

What are the advantages of Gwynt y Mor?

A

It produces power for 400,000 homes, and creates over 100 jobs

38
Q

What are the negatives for Gwynt y Mor?

A

It affects bird migration, affects tourism, and spoils natural beauty

39
Q

How can we sustainably use the rainforest?

A

By selectively logging, creating wildlife corridors, and debt cancelling if countries protect their rainforests

40
Q

How can we sustainably use the savannah?

A

By rotating crops, planting trees, and planting drought resistant crops.

41
Q

What are the consequences of large scale soy bean farming?

A

It promotes monoculture, kills biodiversity, causes soil erosion and disrupts the water cycle

42
Q

What plants grow on sand dunes?

A

sand couch (small) marram grass (fairly small) red fescue (intermediate) creeping willow (dune slack) and oak (mature dune)

43
Q

What are the consequences of cut and burn farming?

A

Land regenerates, only small amounts of tree species lost, small scale burning increases nutrients in soil

44
Q

What happens with an outer bend

A

Undercutting and the fastest velocity

45
Q

What happens with the inner bend

A

A slip off slope and an area of deposition

46
Q

How are meanders created

A

Because abrasion ploughs into the outer bend

47
Q

Hi this is a levée

A
48
Q

Confluence

A

Where two rivers join

49
Q

Transpiration

A

Water vapour is released through the stomata

50
Q

Interception

A

Water is stored on branches and leaves

51
Q

Infiltration

A

Water seeps into the ground

52
Q

Throughflow

A

Water flows through ground horizontally

53
Q

List some flood management techniques

A
  • Flood relief channel
  • Floodwall
  • Embankment
  • Storage area
  • Dam
    • Channelization
      • Gabions
54
Q

What are some soft engineering flood management techniques

A
  • Floodplain zoning
  • Wash lands
  • Warning systems
    • Afforestation
55
Q

Flooding case study

A

Boscastle

56
Q

Measures taken now in boscastle

A
  • River channel widened and deepend
  • Higher bridge built
    • Tree management
57
Q

How are cliffs eroded

A

By undercutting

58
Q

What are two examples of mass sediment movement

A
  • Soil creep
    • Slumping
59
Q

How are stumps formed

A
  • Crack
  • Cave
  • Arch
  • Stack
    • Stump
60
Q

Describe the process of longshore drift

A
  • Swash forces sediment up beach at 45 degree angle
    • Backwash is weaker and takes sediment back at 90 degree angle
61
Q

What are the four types of transportation

A
  • Traction
  • Saltation
  • Supension
    • Solution
62
Q

What is a bar

A

When a spit joins one point of the headland to an island

63
Q

What is a tombolo

A

When the mainland is joined to an island

64
Q

Cliff recession case study

A

Ulrome in East Yorkshire

65
Q

Erosion prevention strategies

A
  • Beach replenishment
  • Sand dune regeneration
  • Salt marsh creation
  • Managed retreat
  • Sea walls
  • Groynes
  • Rip rap
    • Gabions