List the characteristics of scientific methodology
1. Materialism 2. Empiricism 3. Logic
Holds that natural phenomena are governed by natural laws and that these laws impart a predictability or regularity to these phenomena. Furthermore, these laws remain in force in all places and at all times (they are generally applicable) and can be observed, evaluated and therefore, understood.
Careful observations and data collection of natural phenomena to document and explain how the natural world operates
Rules of reasoning that allow one to discern truth. There are two approaches in logic: deductive reasoning (that a more general premise leads to a specific outcome or conclusion) and inductive reasoning (a specific observation or set of observations are generalized and therefore said to apply much more broadly).
List the steps (in order) of the scientific method
1. Initial observation 2. Formulate a hypothesis 3. Experimental design 4. Data collection 5. Data analysis 6. Present the results 7. Peer review 8. Publication
When forming a hypothesis it must be...
Testable, falsifiable and have a predictive value
No significant difference (Ho)
Significant difference (HA)
An experimental group that has not been manipulated
An experimental group that has one variable that has been changed.
When establishing an experimental design what must be considered
Establish groups - control - treatment Assumptions (simplicity vs realism) Feasibility Cost Duration Ethical considerations Replication
English physician (1797-1875) that Believed in Intelligent design and compared creation to the inner workings of a watch.
Refers to the overall structure or design
Structure of an organism in finer detail. Primarily the arrangement of cells and tissue types
A science that is a comparative endeavor
Noting similarities and differences between organisms
Comparative morphology and anatomy
The concept that allows one to make comparisons between organisms. Refers to a correspondence or equivalent of structures
A theoretical construct designed to emphasize common elements in a diverse set of organisms. (do not actually exist in nature)
A body plan or ground plan
English anatomist/morphologist (1804-1892) who coined the term homology (Homology / analogy) "...the same structure under every variety of form and function..."
What parameters are similarities in homology based on?
1. Mature structures 2. Position with the body of the organism 3. Developmental patterns 4. Similar functions (?)
Species with same ancestry with same structures that may look different are
Parallel / convergent evolution; species with different structures that appear very similar due to the organisms change in its environment
The modern basis for classifying organisms is degree of evolutionary relatedness / relationships
Phylogenetic systematics (cladistics)
Man who introduced The principles of geology (uniformitarianism) (1797-1875)
Man who showed concerned with exponential population growth (1766-1834) "...misery and vice..."
Thomas Robert Malthus
Graph that represents exponential growth where the population begins to to even out when it reaches the carrying capacity.
Sigmoid growth curve
Growth rate maximal growth rate and carrying capacity are represented by what
r - growth rate rmax - maximal growth rate k - carrying capacity
When birth rate equals death rate
Zero population growth