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1

List the characteristics of scientific methodology

1. Materialism 2. Empiricism 3. Logic

2

Holds that natural phenomena are governed by natural laws and that these laws impart a predictability or regularity to these phenomena. Furthermore, these laws remain in force in all places and at all times (they are generally applicable) and can be observed, evaluated and therefore, understood.

Materialism

3

Careful observations and data collection of natural phenomena to document and explain how the natural world operates

Empiricism

4

Rules of reasoning that allow one to discern truth. There are two approaches in logic: deductive reasoning (that a more general premise leads to a specific outcome or conclusion) and inductive reasoning (a specific observation or set of observations are generalized and therefore said to apply much more broadly).

Logic

5

List the steps (in order) of the scientific method

1. Initial observation 2. Formulate a hypothesis 3. Experimental design 4. Data collection 5. Data analysis 6. Present the results 7. Peer review 8. Publication

6

When forming a hypothesis it must be...

Testable, falsifiable and have a predictive value

7

Null hypothesis

No significant difference (Ho)

8

Alternate hypothesis

Significant difference (HA)

9

An experimental group that has not been manipulated

Control group

10

An experimental group that has one variable that has been changed.

Treatment group

11

When establishing an experimental design what must be considered

Establish groups - control - treatment Assumptions (simplicity vs realism) Feasibility Cost Duration Ethical considerations Replication

12

English physician (1797-1875) that Believed in Intelligent design and compared creation to the inner workings of a watch.

William Paley

13

Refers to the overall structure or design

Morphology

14

Structure of an organism in finer detail. Primarily the arrangement of cells and tissue types

Anatomy

15

A science that is a comparative endeavor

Biology

16

Noting similarities and differences between organisms

Comparative morphology and anatomy

17

The concept that allows one to make comparisons between organisms. Refers to a correspondence or equivalent of structures

Homology

18

A theoretical construct designed to emphasize common elements in a diverse set of organisms. (do not actually exist in nature)

Archetype

19

A body plan or ground plan

Bauplan

20

English anatomist/morphologist (1804-1892) who coined the term homology (Homology / analogy) "...the same structure under every variety of form and function..."

Richard Owen

21

What parameters are similarities in homology based on?

1. Mature structures 2. Position with the body of the organism 3. Developmental patterns 4. Similar functions (?)

22

Species with same ancestry with same structures that may look different are

Homologous

23

Parallel / convergent evolution; species with different structures that appear very similar due to the organisms change in its environment

Analogous

24

The modern basis for classifying organisms is degree of evolutionary relatedness / relationships

Phylogenetic systematics (cladistics)

25

Man who introduced The principles of geology (uniformitarianism) (1797-1875)

Charles Lyell

26

Man who showed concerned with exponential population growth (1766-1834) "...misery and vice..."

Thomas Robert Malthus

27

Geometric growth

Exponential growth

28

Graph that represents exponential growth where the population begins to to even out when it reaches the carrying capacity.

Sigmoid growth curve

29

Growth rate maximal growth rate and carrying capacity are represented by what

r - growth rate rmax - maximal growth rate k - carrying capacity

30

When birth rate equals death rate

Zero population growth