Unit 1 - Antivirials And Prions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1 - Antivirials And Prions Deck (20):

What is an antiviral

An agent that kills a virus or that suppresses its ability to replicate and hence inhibits its capacity to multiply and reproduce


Why is it difficult to make antivirals

Since viruses use the hosts cells to replicate which makes this difficult to find targets for the drug that would interferes with the virus without also harming the host cells. And virus variation.


How do most antivirals work

Interfere with viral nucleic acid synthesis or regulation. Or interfere with viral cell binding or interruption of virus coating or release. Some antivirals also enhance the immune system of the host


What is a prion

Proteinaceous infectious particles that resist inactivation by procedures that degrade or damage nucleic acids. Prions are normal cellular proteins that undergo confirmational changes and become pathogenic. Very resistant to environmental effects. Do not invoke inflammatory or immune response. Can be transmitted horizontally and perhaps vertically


Describe prion diseases

Transmissible spongiform and cephalopod to use. 9 neurodegenerative diseases with long incubation period for months to years. Cause large vacuoles to form in the brain. Fatal diseases


Name all of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of animals

Scrapies, bovine spongiform encephalopathies, feline spongiform encephalopathies, chronic wasting disease, transmissible mink encephalopathies


What are the human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, kuru, gersttman-straussler-scheinker disease


What is scrapies

Does occur in Canada and United States. Has been known since 1732 but infectious agent remain unknown until 1982. Affects sheep and goats between 3 to 5 years of age. Incubation. 2 to 5 years. Does not appear to be transmittable to humans


What are the clinical signs of scrapie's

Behavior changes, may become excitable. Tremors of the head and neck. Intense pruritis, weakness, ataxia, fatal


What is the diagnosis for scrapie

Based on clinical signs, flock history and, microscopic evaluation of the brain


How do you prevent scrapie

Infectious and could be transmitted to other sheep. Slaughter infected sheep and those sheep that were in contact with infected sheep


What is bovine spongiform encephalopathy

mad cow disease


What are the clinical signs of bovine spongiform encephalopathic

Change in behavior, incoordination, milk production disease, weight loss, fatal. Most cattle affected or 3 to 5 years of age


How do you diagnose bovine spongiform encephalopathy

Based on clinical signs, third history, microscopic a valuation of the brain


How did mad cow disease first start

From feeding cattle meat and bone meal that contains infected products from a spontaneously occur in case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy


How does bovine spongiform start

Spread to cats and certain zoo animals by a protein supplements Added from the rendered cattle products added to animal feed including commercial cat food


How do you prevent mad cow disease

Slaughter of infected animals, bans on meat imported from bse infected countries


How are enhanced animal protection from bse

In infected cattle, bse concentrates on certain tissues known as specified risk material (srm). These tissues are removed from all cattle slaughtered for human consumption.


What are srm

Brain, skull, eyes, ganglia, spinal cord, vertebral column, tonsils


Are bse and scrapies reportable