Unit 2 - Immune Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2 - Immune Disorders Deck (71):

What is an auto immune disorder

Sometimes the immune system identifies parts of its own body as foreign and attacks them.


What is a hyper sensitivity or allergic reaction

The immune system over reacts to foreign invaders by producing too many antibiotics or other chemicals


What is immuno suppression

When the immune system does not react or cannot generate an appropriate immune response


What are the three types of immune disorders

Hypersensitivity, immune deficiencies, immunoproliferative disorders


What are the two types of hypersensitivity reaction

Allergic reaction, auto immune disease


What is hypersensitivity

Antigenic response beyond what is considered normal. Animal is sensitized to an antigen if exposed to that antigen again the immune system reacts in a damaging manner.


What are the four types of hypersensitivity

Type one, type two, type III, type 4


What is a type one hypersensitivity reaction

Anaphylactic shock


What is a type 2 hypersensitivity reaction



What is a type III hypersensitivity reaction

Immune complex


What is a type 4 hypersensitivity reaction

Cell mediated or delayed hypersensitivity


Describe an anaphylactic reaction

Allergic reaction provoked by reexposure to a specific Allergan. Exposure may be by ingestion, inhalation, injection, direct contact.


What is the treatment for an anaphylactic reaction

Epinephrine, antihistamines, corticosteroids


Describe the sensitization form of an anaphylactic reaction

An antigen is presented to helper T cells that stimulate the B cell production of ige antibodies specific to the antigen. Ige antibodies bind to the FC receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils. Mast cells and basophils coated with ige become sensitized


Describe the. Second exposure form of an anaphylactic reaction

He antigen combines with two IGE antibodies on sensitized cells. Degranulation and secretion of histamines, prostaglandins and some other chemicals. Vasodilation of blood vessels and smooth muscle contraction


What is a systemic anaphylactic reaction

If antigen appears in blood, the result can be either anaphylactic shock or more localized reaction


What is a localized anaphylactic reaction

If Antigen enters to the skin, is ingested or inhaled the localized reaction is typical.


What is anaphylactic shock

Rare, life-threatening, immediate allergic reaction to food, and injection, and insect sting. Signs include severe respiratory distress and the sudden onset of diarrhea, vomiting, excessive drooling, shock, seizures, coma, death. Animals gums are very pale and the limbs are cold. Heart rate is fast but post is weak.


How do you counteract an anaphylactic reaction

IV injections of epinephrine is administered to counteract the reaction. Treatment for other associated problems such as difficulty breathing may be needed.


What is hives or urticaria

Allergic reaction to drugs, chemicals, something eaten, insect bites, sunlight. Develops within 20 minutes of exposure to allergens


Describe hives

These severe type of anaphylactic reaction. Small bumps occur on the skin. Often the hair stands up over the swellings and sometimes they itch


Describe facial swelling

Most often noticed on the face especially on the lips, the muzzle, around the eyes. Usually not life-threatening. Give antihistamines and corticosteroids


What is allergic asthma

Most often in cats. Occurs more frequently in summer and after going outdoors. Asthma attacks can be moderate or lengthy and severe


Describe the signs of allergic asthma

Coughing, shortness of breath, mouth breathing, breathing with abdominal efforts. This conviction occurs as a result of construction of the breathing passages triggered by the release of compounds such as histamines that combat allergens


What is the treatment for allergic asthma

Oral or inhaled corticosteroids but they do not treat the underlying cause of the asthma. Determining allergic trigger can be difficult


What's one warning about cats with asthma attacks

Decompensation and stress can be fatal to them, may need sedation before procedures like radiographs


Describe the type 2 cytotoxic reaction

Activation of complement by combination of IgG or I GM to antigenic cell equals cell lysis.further damage can be caused by macrophages that will attack the antibody coated cells.


What triggers the antibody antigen complex

Unclear. May be associated with other immune system disturbances or triggered by a drug, vaccine, infection. Most often trigger cannot be pinpointed


Describe a type 3 immune complex reaction

Antigen antibody complexes are deposited in organs and cause inflammatory damage. Most commonly affected sites include joints, skin, lungs, kidneys, brain


What is glomerulonephritis

Inflammation of the glomera life of the kidney. Develops when immune complexes become trapped in the glomera light which activate inflammatory response and damages the glomeruli. Results in protein loss in urine


What is the treatment for glomerular nephritis

Immunosuppressive drugs to reduce the formation of immune complexes. If left untreated leads to chronic kidney failure


What is vasculitis

Inflammation of the blood vessels


What is anterior uveitis

Inflammation of eye and immune complexes deposition on iris


Summarize type one, two and three hypersensitivities

Involve the humeral immune responses including IGE, IgG, IGM


Summarize type four hypersensitivity reaction

Cell mediated responses under caused mainly by T cells


What is type four hypersensitivity reaction considered

Delayed type hypersensitivity were reactions are not apparent for a day or more


What accounts for the delay in time for a type four hypersensitivity

Time required for T cells and macrophages to migrate and accumulate near the foreign antigens


How does sensitization occur

When foreign antigens are phagocytised by macrophages and are presented to receptors on T cells. T cells proliferate into mature T cells and memory cells.


What happens when an animal sensitized to an antigen is exposed to the same antigen

Memory cells activated T cells which release destructive cytokines. The cytokines attract macrophages


What is contact dermatitis

Absorption of Allergan through skin. Allergens react with skin proteins and modify them. Skin proteins are no perceived as foreign. Body produces cell mediated response and causes skin damage.


Why does contact dermatitis occur

Occurs as a result of contact with sensitizing chemicals in plastic food dishes, plastic callers, flea collars, drugs placed on skin, finishes from carpets, cleaning agents, pollen, grass, weeds


What happens when the animal gets contact dermatitis

Erruption of papules, generalized erythema, crusting of the skin, hair loss, hyperpigmentation, thickening of the skin


What is keratoconjunctivitis Sicca caused by

An immune reaction destroys the tear glands. An occurrence and dogs with a genetic predisposition. Treat with Prescription eyedrops that contains cyclosporin which inhibits the immune response


What is old dog encephalitis

Chronic brain inflammation


What is autoimmune thyroiditis

Immune mediated disease that destroys the thyroid gland


What is autoimmune adrenalitus

Caused by infiltration of immune cells into the adrenal gland. This causes the destruction of the glands and may lead to the signs of Addison's disease


What is flea allergic dermatitis

Development of hypersensitivity reaction and skin lesions in response to flea salivary antigens. Repeated exposure to flea salivary antigens induce hypersensitivities one and four. When reoccurring or persistent may become more intense and be triggered with progressively less antigen.


What are the symptoms of flea allergic dermatitis

Acute onset of moderate to severe pruritis. Varying degree of alopecia, erythema, excoriations. In cats causes excessive grooming and vomiting hairballs


What is the treatment for flea allergic dermatitis

Revolution, advantage multi, advantage with or without capstar. Corticosteroids and antibiotics if necessary


What is a congenital immune deficiency and give an example

Born with a defective immune system. Nude or her list most has no thymus gland. Does not produce T cells and does not reject transplanted tissue


Describe an acquired immune deficiency

Maybe caused by drugs, cancers, infectious agents. Many viruses are capable of infecting and killing lymphocytes which lower the immune response such as parvovirus pan leukopenia and fiv, felv. Removal of the spleen decreases the humeral response


How does the cell become cancerous

When it undergoes transformation and begins to proliferate without control. Initially the cancer is an individual cell that arises from mutations. Viral infection can also change it normal cell to a cancerous cell. Individual cancer cells are attacked.by the immune system. Once a cancer cell attaches to tissue and becomes vascularized develops rapidly into a tumor that becomes resistant to immune rejection


What is lymphoma

Systemic malignant neoplasm of lymphoid origin


What is a multicentric lymphoma distribution

Lymph nodes, spleen, liver.


What is an alimentary lymphoma distribution

Stomach, small intestine,Colon, rectum him


What is a mediastinal lymphoma distribution

Thymus, mediastinal and sternal lymph nodes


What are the other three places lymphomas can be found

Renal, spinal, nasal


Describe lymphoma in cats

Mostly gastrointestinal or renal. Typically cats of 7 to 13 years in age. Felv 62x times more likely. Fiv 5x times more likely. Infection are risk factors for developing a lymphoma. FeLV status influences age and anatomical location. FeLV and associated lymphoma is mostly in young cats. Mediastinal and spinal.


Described lymphoma and dogs

Mostly multicentric in the lymph nodes, spleen, liver. Typically middle-aged to older dogs


Which breeds are predisposed to lymphoma

Golden retrievers, boxers, Rottweilers, Bassett hound, cocker spaniels, bulldog poodle


How do you diagnose lymphoma

Fine needle aspiration of lymph node. Abdominal ultrasound plus fine needle aspiration of affected Organ. Thoracic radiographs. Laparotomy and biopsy


How do you treat lymphoma

Chemotherapy. Prognosis is variable depending on lymphocyte type. B cells have a better prognostic then T cell tumors, grade of disease, location.


Describe allergies to cats

Type one hypersensitivity and humans. Five cat allergens are described. Two major allergens are Fel D1 and Fel D4.


What is F EL D1 secreted by

The sebaceous glands of the cat


What is F EL D4 secreted by

The submandibular salivary gland and is deposited onto dander as the cat grooms itself


What are the symptoms of allergies to cats

Swollen, red, itchy and watery eyes. Nasal congestion, itchy nose, sneezing, itchy throat, coughing, wheezing


How do you cope with allergies

Clean carpets regularly, air purifier system, frequent handwashing, limit access to rooms


What can you do to the cat to help with the allergines

Bathing the cat regularly. Brushing to reduce amount of loose fur. Feeding the cat a high-quality diet with plenty of omega-3 fatty acids to keep a healthy coat.


Are hypoallergenic cats non allergenic

No. Less likely to provoke an allergic reaction. Very controversial


Which cats are considered hypoallergenic

Siberian cats, Devon Rex, Cornish Rex, Abyssinian, Bailey knees, Oriental shorthair, Russian blue


What some special things about allergens with gender and color

Female cats produce lower levels of allergens than males. Neutered males produce lower levels than for tile mills. Dark colored cats may produce more allergens than light colored cats