Unit 1: Ch. 1, 2, 3, & 4 Flashcards Preview

Physiological Psychology > Unit 1: Ch. 1, 2, 3, & 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 1: Ch. 1, 2, 3, & 4 Deck (281):
0

Specialized nerve cells that transmit electrochemical signals

Neurons

1

What distinguishes biopsychology from other sub disciplines of neuroscience?

It focuses on the study of behavior

2

Structure is to function as

Neuroscience is to biopsychology

3

The advantage of humans over other subjects

Cheaper
Report subjective experiences
Follow verbal directions

4

Major difference between human brains and other mammals

More cortex

5

Within subjects design

Each subject exposed to each condition of experiment

6

Difference manipulated by experimenter

Independent variable

7

In so e studies, subjects are not assigned to conditions; instead subjects are selected b/c already live under those conditions (ex: alcohol consumers and nonconsumers). Such studies are...

Quasi experimental designs

8

Schizophrenics and relatives have difficulties

Smooth visual tracking of regularly moving objects

9

Major method of cognitive neuroscience

Functional brain imaging

10

Different approaches focused on single problem, specifically strengths of one approach compensate for weakness of other

Converging operations

11

Primary symptom of Korsakoff's syndrome

Severe memory loss

12

Subjects with curarized eye muscles, who view stationary target, see the target move

In same direction as they attempt to move eyes

13

Approximately how many patients in US have received prefrontal lobotomy?

40,000

14

Physiological psychology

Find patterns
Connect mechanisms
Look underneath to see what people actually mean

15

Impulse

Strong urge or desire to act
Makes us all think we are crazy

Ex: random urge to gauge eye out when cutting vegetables

16

Impulse control

Will power
Self control

Ex: don't actually gauge eye out

17

Frontal cortex

Responsible for impulse/impulse control
1st suppressed by alcohol

18

Alcohol and frontal cortex

Most sensitive to alcohol
Depressant
Lose impulse control

19

Mechanism

Process by which something is brought about
Behavior explained by smaller mechanisms

20

Glial cell

Glue that holds brain together
90% of brain cells
Don't do heavy thinking

21

How many brain cells

Trillion
900 billion glial
100 billion neurons

22

Phenomenology

Study of development of human conscience and self-awareness

23

Basis for sex differences

Cell size

24

Female investment

Females invest ,ore in terms of resources b/c sex cells (ovum) are bigger than sperm

25

Genes and sex

Sex desirable b/c encourages reproduction

26

Evolutionary sex mechanism and males

More sexually aggressive and like lots of partners so they evolve mechanisms of deception- have to trick female into thinking they will stay around

27

Girls evolutionary sex mechanism

Careful and choosy with partners, want best offspring, and few partners- have to evolve detectors of male deception

29

Male and female arms race regarding sex

Social pressures and evolutionary mechanisms require both to become more intelligent

Males- improve deception
Females- detect deception

Will lead to gigantic brains

30

levels of description

have to talk about lower level underlying phenomena to explain more complicated mechanisms
Ex: using genes (biology) to explain behavior
*doesn't always apply (can't explain WWI w/ quantum mechanics)

31

John Money

believed people behave the way they are b/c of experience ONLY
circumcision complications with David Reimer caused Money to propose raising as girl
DISPROVED

32

What David Reimer taught us

1.) sexual identity not based purely on exposure
2.) sexual identity is innate (genes)
3.) sexual identity stems from biology

33

left hemisphere dominant

verbal

34

right hemisphere dominant

visual, spatial

35

androgen

male hormone that leads to penis growth

36

androgen insensitive

have Y chromosome, but don't respond to androgens in womb (don't grow penis); born as a female anatomically

37

informal experiment

mystery switch; guessing game

38

formal experiment

independent and dependent variable; control and experimental conditions

39

Experimental conditions

exposing DV to manipulation of IV

40

control conditions

witholding manipulation of IV

41

quasi-experiment

can't manipulate conditions b/c of physical (sex, age) and ethical restraints; people have to naturally be in group

42

quasi-experiment example

let alcoholics and nonalcoholics drink like normal then measure drinking amount and degree of brain damage

43

limitations of quasi-experiment

coorilation does not always mean causation
Ex: cant say alcohol causes brain damage b/c brain damage may cause drinking

44

aphasia

deficit in ability to produce or comprehend language

45

Broca's area

inferior prefrontal cortex of left hemisphere
speech production

46

Gordon Holmes

cerebellum and visual cortex
specific region of brain for balance, vision, bladder
research on gunshot wounds to describe cerebellar disease

47

ataxis

failure of muscle control in arms and legs
results in movement disorders

48

Roger Tootell

used radioactive sugar to analyze retinotopic organization in various areas of the brain

49

instrumental value

good b/c provides means for acquiring something else
Ex: have money, so can get happiness

50

intrinsic value

good in itself
Ex: happy is good, but not because it leads to anything else

51

what can fMRI tell us

different responses in men and women
stroke recovery
imagination and vision
auditory hallucinations

52

cognitive neuroscience

study of biological foundations of natural phenomena

53

fMRI

visualize what parts of brain active during certain tasks
can be used to show different stroke recovery between genders

54

why do animal research

1.) homology with human structure (wing, hand, etc)
2.) understand animal subject
3.) ethical and legal restrictions with humans

55

reason for no speciesism

animals cannot stand up for their right like humans can when it comes to racism/sexism

56

institutional animal care and use committee

have to balance benefits with cost; have to explain how you are going to minimize pain to the animal and what the costs and benefits are

57

learned helplessness

-Marty Sullivan shocked dog feet
-one group shocked until jumped over gate
-other group shocked even when jump over gate
-eventually stopped even trying to escape
**can be used to describe depression

58

blood oxygen level dependent signal (BOLD)

shown in fMRI
part of the the brain that are more active are more oxygenated

59

fMRI and stroke recovery

-men use a single area for certain tasks, while women use several different areas close in proximity
-women recover more quickly b/c have areas to compensate
-men have longer recovery b/c have to recruit other part of brain

60

diffuse activation

use several areas close in proximity to carry out task (women)

61

focal activation

single area for certain tasks (men)

62

visual imagination

-even if eyes are closed can see imagined image b/c visual system is in tact
-reason why dreams seem so vivid

63

damage visual cortex

can't imagine and can't see things when dreaming

64

auditory hallucinations

hearing voices in head
normally cease when attention diverted

65

schizophrenics and auditory hallucinations

-cannot stop voices in head b/c of abnormalities in frontal cortex associated with focus and control
-cant control voices
-proven by fMRI showing active auditory cortex when reported voices in head

66

evolution

scientific explanation as to where bodies come from

67

why 2nd law of thermodynamics cannot be used as argument for no evolution

-law says entropy increases in CLOSED system
-evolution would be entropy decrease b/c things get more complicated
-valid b/c earth is OPEN

68

one way to study self-awareness in nonhuman animals is to confront them with...

a mirror

69

Darwin was not the firs to suggest species evolve, but he was the first to suggest...

how evolution occurs

70

social dominance is an important factor in evolution because dominant males often

produce more offspring than nondominant males

71

animals with dorsal nerve cords are called

chordates

72

what is not true regarding chordates

all chordates are vertebrates

73

last remaining hominid species

homo sapiens

74

metaphorically, evolution is

a bush

75

a bird's wing and bee's wing are

analogous

76

in what measure of brain development are humans surpassed by shrews

brain weight expressed as a percentage of total body weight

77

what does the brain stem regulate

reflex activities critical for survival

78

monogamy evolved in only those species

in which each female could raise more fit young if she had undivided help

79

Mendel's early experiments challenged which central premise

offspring can inherit only those traits that are displayed by their parents

80

observable traits

phenotype

81

letters of genetic code

nucleotide bases

82

Cooper and Zubek found that maze-bright rats made fewer errors than maze-dull rats if

both groups had been reared in an impoverished laboratory environment

83

blood of newborn infants is routinely screened for

phenylalanine

84

most extensive study of twins reared apart

Minnesota study

85

afferent nerves carry sensory info

to the CNS

86

what conserves the body's energy

parasympathetic nervous system

87

three meninges from outside in

dura--> arachnoid -->pia

88

when a tumor near the cerebral aqueduct causes cerebrospinal fluid to accumulate in the brain

hydrocephalus

89

part of the neuron that is sometimes myelinated

axon

90

communication among mammalian neurons occurs where

across synapses

91

axon

single long process emanating from cell body of multipolar neurons

92

myelination

increases speed of axonal conduction

93

back of your head is

posterior

94

tip of nose is

medial and anterior

95

cut that would sever all of the commissures (tract that connects right and left hemispheres

sagittal

96

where is the reticular formation

brain stem

97

what is visible on dorsal surface of brain stem

cerebellum

98

most sensory nuclei of the thalamus project to

the cortex

99

x-shaped structure of brain

optic chiasm

100

midsagittal cut to brain would leave uncut axon that are

ipsilateral (remain on one side)

101

which lobe does not border a longitudinal fissure separating hemispheres

temporal

102

function of occipital cortex

visual

103

limbic system

includes septum, cingulate cortex, fornix, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and thalamus

involved in regulation of motivated behaviors

104

parts of the limbic system that are cortical structures

hippocampus and cingulate

105

membrane potential

difference in electrical charge between inside and outside of cell

106

Na+ are continuously forced into neurons by

high external concentration and negative resting potential

107

change in RMP from -70 mV to -72 mV

IPSP (inhibitory postsynaptic potential)

108

decremental

EPSP and IPSPs decrease in amplitude as they travel through neuron

109

how far do most postsynaptic potentials travel before they die out

no more than a couple of millimeters

110

where to action potentials originate

axon, adjacent to axon hillock

111

during an action potential, the change in membrane potential associated with sodium ions triggers the

opening of potassium channels

112

end of rising phase of AP occurs when

potassium channels close

113

active transmission is to passive transmission as

APs are to EPSPs

114

how do neurons produce signals in postsynaptic neurons

by binding to postsynaptic receptors

115

autoreceptors are commonly found in

presynaptic membranes

116

acetylcholine

only neurotransmitter that is known to be deactivated in the synaptic cleft by enzymatic action

117

which inhibitory neurotransmitter is most prevalent in mammalian CNS

GABA

118

drugs that facilitate activity of synapses of particular neurotransmitters

agonists

119

curare

drug that produces paralysis by binding to nicotinic cholinergic receptors

120

receptor blockers

drugs that block reuptake of neurotransmitter from synapse

121

antagonist

drugs that bind to neurotransmitters autoreceptors w/o activating them

122

drugs that degrade vesicles and cause neurotransmitter molecules to leak into cytoplasm where they are destroyed by enzymes

agonists of neurotransmitter

123

endorphin

morphine-like substance that occurs naturally in the brain

124

endorphins play a role in

analgesia (inhibit pain) and pleasure

125

William Paley

-Natural theology
-watch on a beach example
-watch is complex, so requires design and not chance
-human heart is complex, so must be design

126

3 evolution alternatives

1.) chance
2.) design
3.) natural selection

127

Charles Darwin

natural selection- beneficial traits are conserved

128

artificial selection

-human intervention promotes survival of the best characteristics
Ex: dog breeding, cow raising, chicken raising

129

evolution of eye and natural selection

-plankton only have photoreceptors
-photoreceptors recess for protection
-continuing recess for better detection
-cuff forms around receptors
-pupil develops => mammal eye

130

components of natural selection

1.) random variations
2.) more reproduced than survive
3.) fittest survive
4.) adaptive characteristics survive

131

metaphor of a mountain

altitude is proportional to fitness- closer to peak, more fit and more likely to survive (flood)

132

conservation of adaptive characteristics

evolution is not chance, rather evolution conserves the adaptive traits and gets rid of the others

133

evolution of brain

began with flatworms, then chordates, then compromise

134

compromise to chordates

-armor for brain, not whole body
-nerver chord
-speed, maneuverability, weapons of attack
-more offensive than defensive

135

human kingdom

animal

136

human phylum

chordate

137

human class

mammal

138

human order

primate

139

human family

hominid

140

human species

sapien

141

alternatives to paley's argument

chance is unreasonable so would have to accept design, but Darwin saves the day combining chance and design in natural selection (some mutations are chance)

142

jumping to top of mountain example significance

evolution works in tiny stages (possible to "hop" all the way to the top of a mountain)

143

wrinkled brains

-restrained brain volume requires increase in surface area to increase cortex => greater intelligence

144

Aristotle and wrinkled brain

-thought increased surface area served to cool blood
-humans have cold blood and wrinkled brain
-animals without wrinkled brain have warm blood
-not an accurate explanation, but was onto something with the surface area idea

145

Richard Dawkins

-first to propose that unit of evolution is genes, rather than individual
-genes are "selfish" and only worry about heir own survival (want to make copies)

146

E.O Wilson

-said genes explain sexual aggressiveness of males
-males predisposed to want lots of partners -> lots of copies of genes
-criticized b/c many thought he was justifying rape (only was explaining)

147

alturism

1.) doing something nice
2.) benefitting others
3.) not seeking reciprocal benefit
*no one is truly altruistic b/c always evolving to get most benefits out of life

148

why are we nice to kids

-genes predispose us to be
-increases likelihood of survival and reproduction

149

kin selection

# of individuals x amount of shared genome >1; then willing to sacrifice self for them
*altruism that applies to relatives

150

reason to save single child

would be sacrificing an entire genome for half to survive, but genes still win in the end b/c children are young and have good potential for reproduction

151

reciprocal altruism

-nice to non-relatives seeking reciprocal behaviors
-for people we know well

152

social contract

-nice to non-relatives we don't know
-deposit responsibilities
-withdrawal rights
-social behavior that establishes norms, rights, responsibilities
*accepted in society (rights) b/c obey norms (responsibilities)

153

why mean to other races

-don't follow same social contract
-have different norms and values
-causes fear of foreigners

154

Wason

-card sorting task based on symbolic logic
-we don't have logical ability, so difficult to recognize which cards to flip over

155

Symbolic logic example

-have to find card that violates vowel on one side must have even # on other
*A: flip to find even #
*B: dont flip
*4: DONT flip (vowel has to have even, not even has to have vowel)
*7: flip to make sure no vowel

156

social contract calculator

-we just get it
-used when identifying drinking violators
-we're more likely to recognize a cheater than logical deviations (card flipping task)

157

"deposit" of drinking

responsibility of being 21 yrs old

158

"withdrawal" drinking

rights to drink

159

why genes promote social contract

-genes trying to make more copies or raise social standing
-random acts of kindness may pay off
-never know who is watching

160

what if we were equipped with general problem solver

-Wason's card flipping and underaged drinking tasks would be equivalent in difficulty

161

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

162

peripheral nervous system

everything besides brain and spinal cord
*somatic
*autonomic

163

somatic peripheral nervous system

-voluntary muscular activity
-involves skeletal muscles

164

autonomic peripheral nervous system

-involuntary muscular activity
-involves smooth and cardiac muscles
*sympathetic
*parasympathetic

165

sympathetic nervous system

-fight or flight
-coordinates muscle activity
-arousal responses
-HR increase, sweating, pupil dilation, etc

166

parasympathetic nervous system

-relaxation
-digestion
-mucus processing

167

antagonists

-sympathetic and parasympathetic
-can't have both working at once
-crank up sympathetic -> suppress para

168

crystal meth vs. Sudafed

differences in intended and side affects

169

intended effect meth

excite sympathetic nervous system

170

side effect meth

suppress parasympathetic nervous system

171

intended effect Sudafed (psuedo-epinephrine)

suppress parasympathetic
*reason why helps cold (suppresses mucus processing)

172

side effect Sudafed

excite sympathetic nervous system

173

why bad teeth with meth

1.) drink Mountain Dew- need something light colored b/c digestive system suppressed
2.) lack of saliva- digestive system suppressed
3.) don't brush often

174

meninges

layers of tissue protecting brain

175

dura mater

-outermost layer of meninges
-hard
-smoothes rough edges of skull

176

pia mater

-meninge layer closest to brain
-caresses gyri and fissures of brain

177

arachnoid membrane

-between dura and pia mater
-looks like webbing

178

arachnoid space

-between pia and arachnoid membrane
-filled with cerebrospinal fluid

179

cerebrospinal fluid

blood- dissolved components lacking cellular materials (plasma, solutes, etc)

180

where does cerebral spinal fluid come from

-capillaries proximal to ventricles leak
-ventricle walls allow passage of everything in blood besides cellular components (strips out)

181

ventricle

-fluid filled "container"
-system of 4 ventricles carry CSF throughout brain and spine

182

Role of CSF

1.) cushion brain
2.) maintain ion balances
3.) identify toxin presence
*possible b/c ventricles are next to hypothalamus

183

hydrocephalus

-water on the brain
-occurs when CSF is blocked from making way out of ventricles down spine
-less common today b/c of surgical advances

184

astrocyte foot processes

-surround brain capillaries
-very impermeable and only really small particles (O2) can pass between astrocytes

185

blood brain barrier

-glial cell barrier between brain and capillaries

186

what can penetrate through BBB

-non cellular components
-small components
-uncharged components
-fat-soluble substances

187

why fat soluble toxins can get through BBB

-membrane of astrocytes is made of lipids
Ex: THC (marijuana)

188

Why do we have BBB

prevent flow of pathogens and chemical insults into brain

189

how does glucose get to brain

-active transport b/c insulin doesn't work (glucose and insulin are too big)
*brain can only run on glucose

190

brain needs

1.) protection- meninges, BBB, ventricle walls
2.) nutrients- brought via CSF

191

what ventricle walls permeable to

-any molecule that is not cellular- doesn't matter the size or charge

192

why is brain finicky

it can't regenerate neurons, so exposure to pathogens and toxins is detrimental

193

benefits of leaky ventricles

1.) glucose levels fall -> hunger
2.) Na+ level increase -> seek water
3.) presence of toxin -> vomit

194

commisures

neural structures that connect left and right hemispheres of brain

195

hindbrain

-back of brain
-cerebellum
-brainstem

196

cerebellum

-has more neurons than rest of brain
-associated with fine motor control (sensitive to alcohol)

197

brainstem

-medulla
-pons

198

medulla

-majority of brain stem
-reflexes- breathing, HR, digestion, gag

199

pons

-top of brainstem
-where neural connection cross hemispheres

200

forebrain

-cerebral cortex- 4 lobes
-sub-cortical systems

201

4 lobes of brain

-temporal
-occipital
-parietal
-frontal

202

subcortical systems

-limbic system
-basal ganglia

203

basal ganglia

cells at bottom of brain

204

limbic system

amygdala
hippocampus
olfactory bulb
*activation/inactivation of one causes all to respond similarly

205

amygdala

-emotional arousal and fear
-sensitive to alcohol- why alcohol reduces anxiety

206

hippocampus

short term memory to long term

207

olfactory bulb

emotional memories
smell
anosmia and suicidality

208

Why are amygdala, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb in same system

-if you fire up one part or limbic, it tends to fire up other parts (same if turn down)
-retention (hippocampus) of emotion related memories (amygdala)
-associate smell (olfactory) w/ memories (hip)

209

anosmia

-can't smell
-can be devastating b/c can't fire up amygdala -> emotionally blunted

210

taste aversion

-smell of food that made you sick is remembered and causes food aversion

211

order of neural processing

dendrite -> soma -> axon

212

terminal button

-swelling at end of axon
-just before synaptic cleft

213

chemical signal transmission

-transmission BETWEEN different neurons

214

electrical signal transmission

-signal WITHIN a neuron

215

bowhunting parable

-gamey meet- stress hormones in muscle
-bowhunter is mounted "at rest"- preparation, so ready to shoot at any minutes
-resting potential is a cell ready to signal quickly
-cost/benefit of remaining "flexed"

216

cost/benefit of resting potential

-cost- expenditure of energy
-benefit- split second timing (readiness)

217

Sisyphus

cell can trade potential energy for kinetic energy- can make things move (Na, K, etc)

218

every cycle of sodium potassium pump

-3 Na+ out
-2 K+ in

219

what form of potential energy available in neuron

1.) chemical potential energy
2.) electrical potential energy

220

chemical gradient

-concentration gradient
-has potential energy (can trade for KE)
-has directionality

221

why is inside negative relative to outside

-3 + charges leave cell, while only 2 + are brought in

222

concentration gradient K+

pushes K+ outside b/c less outside

223

electrical gradient K+

pushes K+ inside b/c attracted to negative (same applies for Na+)

224

Na+ attraction into cell

concentration and electrical gradient both inward (concentration K+ is out; electrical is in

225

what aspect generates electrical gradient

-3 Na+ out
-2 K+ in

226

massive doses of K+ is lethal b/c it tends to

reverses concentration gradient of K+
*K+ accumulates inside cell and K+ electrochemical gradient diminishes, which eliminates Na+ electrochemical gradient
*cell can no longer signal

227

Hodgkin and Huxley

-squid axon (giant axon)
-not myelinated- can't send signals w/o having large diameter
-concluded hyper/depolarization

228

increase voltage

-Na+ channels open (influx)
-inside becomes positively charged, so electrical gradient K+ pushes out w/ K+ concentration gradient (efflux)
-Na+ channels close (K+ still going out)
-potential falls past RMP
-K+ channels close
-Na+/K+ pump restores to RMP

229

when to Na+ and K+ channels close

-Na+ at top of peak
-K+ before refractory period (can't open any channels)

230

all-or-none principle

-all APs are identical
-refractory period between APs

231

dendrites

-Na+ and Cl- channels
-signals are post-synaptic potentials
-activated by chemical stimulus
-not all or none- decremental transmission
-not amplified
-no refractory

232

axons

-have Na+ and K+ channels
-signals are action potentials
-activated by electrical stimulus
-all or none
-amplified
-have refractory period

233

somatic integration

Does ΣEPSP-ΣIPSP exceed activation threshold; if so AP fired

234

switch

-switch is binary (all or nothing) so can be used to describe AP
-graded potentials are like dimmer switches

235

supra-threshold

above threshold

236

what returns cell back to RP

sodium potassium potential

237

parable of telegraph relay station

-every wire loses signal strength with distance (decremental)
-receive signal and send to next station (amplify signal)
-output signal is same strength as input signal b/c was amplified
-how the axon works- myelin amplifies

238

myelin

-sheaths surround axon serving to amplify signals

239

Node of Ranvier

-nodes between myelin sheaths on axon
-where Na+ can enter axon

240

as distance from the source increases

signal strength decreases

241

Na+ diffuses passively in both directions, what causes AP to go in one direction

-absolute refractory period and inactivation of Na+ channels forces AP to travel in one direction
-no action potential is possible even with applied extracellular depolarization
-due to Na+ channels having an inactivation gate on them
*absolute refractory period of previous action potential prevents generation of a second action potential in the reverse direction

242

saltatory conduction

-propagation of AP along myelinated axons from one node of Ranvier to the next
-increases velocity of AP w/o having to increase diameter
*active transmission along axon

243

induce charge at 2 different axon locations

-Na+ channels open
-Na goes in both directions from each electrode
-APs between electrodes fizzle upon meeting

244

Why are IPSP and EPSPs considered to be decrementally transmitted, but AP are not

-IPSPs and EPSPs are passive
-action potentials are active

245

Are ion channels distributed evenly along axon

-no ion channels under myelin
-ion channels are in between myelin sheaths

246

multiple sclerosis

-immune system attacks myelin cells
-neuron becomes de-myelinated
-no myelin to keep Na+ from escaping, so leaks out
-signal strength falls off dramatically

247

exocytosis

-vesicles in terminal button dumped out of cell into synapse
-passively diffuse across synapse
-when get to post-synaptic membrane, bind to receptors, opening chemically activated Na+/Cl- ion channels

248

excitatory neurotransmitters

-associated with Na+ channels
-dopamine (binding site on Na+ channel), glutamate, serotonin
-turns voltage up

249

inhibitory neurotransmitters

-associated with Cl- channels
-alcohol, barbiturates, GABA (receptors on Cl- channels)
-turns voltage down

250

ACh

-first neurotransmitter discovered
-acts inside and outside of brain
-makes muscle contract

251

Otto Loewi

-trying to figure out if neurons communicate electrically or chemically
-stimulates vagus nerve (associated w/ parasympathetic)
-discovers chemical communication- later discovered as ACh

252

neromuscular junction

-gap between neurons
-like a synapse
-neurotransmitters passed across

253

motor neuron

-dumps tons ACh into neuromusclular junction
-then dumps AChE- metabolizes ACh (no longer active)

254

Sarin

-nerve gas
-blocks ACh esterase
-ACh not degraded at neuromuscular junction
-muscle fiber becomes refractory and stops contracting (paralysis)
-diaphragm can't contract -> death
-indirect agonist- inhibits degradation

255

antiperspirant vs. deodorant

-deodorant just masks smell
-antiperspirant- alters function (drug)

256

drug

-alters function in small doses
-exogenous- externally generated
-neurotransmitters aren't drugs

257

Synaptic processes

1.) release
2.) binding
3.) deactivation- reuptake/enzymatic degradation

258

psychoactive drugs

-influence a synaptic process
-Cocaine- encourages release of dopamine => lots of AP

259

direct agonist

-neurotransmitter mimic that binds and activates receptor
-looks like nt so can bind to active site and activate channel
-Ex: LSD looks like serotonin so binds to majority of serotonin receptors

260

antagonist

-prevents release of neurotransmitter
-competitive binding
-cannabinoids and haldol

261

agonist

helps or enhances effect of neurotransmitter

262

morphine

-direct agonist to endogenous morphine (endorphins)

263

cannabinoids

-represses release of neurotransmitters in brain
-Ex: anandamide- breaks connects with memory in brain

264

SSRI

-selective serotonin re uptake inhibitors
-Prozac, Zoloft
-allows for more serotonin in synapse -> less depressed
-indirect agonist

265

cocaine and amphetamine

-dopamine agonists (indirect)
-enhance release of dopamine

266

GABA

-inhibitory nt
-binds to Cl- channel
-Cl influx hyperpolarizes cell
*most depressants are GABA indirect agonists

267

depressants

-indirect GABA agonists
-ethanol
-benzodiazepine
-barbiturate
-neurosteroids
*bind to the receptor, but don't activate it

268

indirect agonist

-enhances release of neurotransmitter, but doesn't bind to receptor or binds to receptor, but doesn't activate
-blocks transporter- cocaine
-blocks reputable- SSRI
-inhibits clearance- sarin

269

dopamine

-opens Na+ channels

270

Haldol

-depressant, but doesn't have to do with GABA
-antagonist of dopamine
-competitive binding- binds to dopamine receptors, but doesn't activate, and stuck there

271

homeostasis

-maintaining balance
-keep good stuff inside and bad stuff out

272

excess of dopamine in synapse

-cranks up AP in postsynaptic neuron
-result of taking cocaine
-lots of autoactivation -> presynaptic neuron tells soma to turn off dopamine activation

273

autoactivation sites

-presynaptic binding site for neurotransmitter
-discourage manufacture and release of neurotransmitters
*negative feedback inhibition

274

effect of post-synaptic potentials

-activate action potential

275

withdrawal and cocaine

-dopamine levels crash as a result of autoinactivation
-feel depressed and need more cocaine

276

drugs that influence nt release

-Cannabinoids
-antagonist

277

drugs that influence nt reuptake

-Prozac (SSRIs)

278

drugs that influence nt binding

-LSD (direct agonist)
-haldol-antagonist

279

drugs that influence enzymatic degradation

-Indirect agonist
-sarin

280

drugs that competetively bind

-haldol
-antagonist

281

if you were to administer amphetamine and haldol at the same time, how would the subject feel

3 possibilities
-feel turned up (amphetamine- stimulant)
-feel turned down (haldol- depressant)
-in the middle
*feel like just took haldol b/c haldol binds and sticks w/o activating receptor- prevents dopamine from binding