Unit 2 lecture Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2 lecture Deck (169):
1

history

  • Know what the message is without having to hear it
  • Caller ID and see it's your boyfriend
  • Dont listen to the message b/c you know what he wants based on history
  • dese anteriorgrade amnesia
  •  

2

pathway

  • result of neuromigration during development

3

history (science explanation)

  • neurosculpting
  • start with undifferentiated neurons and then figure out who you are by wiring specific neurons

4

neural wiring

  • dedicated pathways and history

5

zygote

single cell (sperm+egg)

6

embryo

  • 2 or more cells
  • totipotent

7

stem cell

  • have the potential to differentiate into any cell
  • regenerate

8

totipotent

  • ability of single cell to divide and produce all the differentiated cells that make up an organism

9

In vitro fertilization (IVF)

  • inject fertilized egg into female that is infertile, or whose husband is infertile 
  • implant multiple to be sure

10

how does totipotent cell know what to differentiate into

  • chemical gradient in uterus
  • chemical composition of cell in uterus, determines what it will become
  • nearest to bottom- neurons (fetus develops with head down)

11

migration

  • neron has to migrate to target in spine
  • genetics and chemical influences determine migration during development

12

difference between fetus and embryo

  • fetus at 3 months b/c start looking human 

13

how does neuron know where to travel

  • growth cone serves as "feelers"

14

retina neurons

  • half of cell cross over at ptic chiasm
  • other half dont
  • example of some neurons following signs and others not 

15

3 stages of differentiation

  • figure out what cell is going to be
  • strat to migrate
  • when close to target get permiscuous about where you want to be

16

Retinal signal

  • neural cell in retina senses light
  • nerve reaches optic chiasm
  • cells then travel to cortex 
  • *spot on retina correlates with spot on cortex (good connection)

17

bad connection

  • signal on retina goes to wrong part of cortex
  • surrounding cells in retina are correct connection and behaving appropriately- releasing neruotransmitters and neurotrophins
  • surrounding cells in cortex are not happy b/c not in the same location as the right cells
  • neural cell of bad connection goes through apoptosis 

18

neurotrophins

  • enhance growth
  • Ex: nerve growth factors

19

apoptosis

  • programmed cell death
  • cell only does it when it knows it doesn't belong
  • leads to the complicated connections and proper cell arrangement
  • Ex: good for eliminating webbed feet and hands of embryo
  • bag organnelles to prepare for release upon bursting and macrophage degradation 

20

necrosis

  • cell injury that results in premature death 
  • membrane ruptures and dumps organelles into extracellular fluid before they are "bagged"
  • release of free radicals
  • Inflammation

21

connect to right side of cortex

  • turn on and off at the same time as neighbors
  • release and receive neurotransmitters and nerve growth factors at same time as others
  • If iincorrect, don't do or get stuff at same time as neighbors, so go through apoptosis

22

Japanese and "r" and "l"

  • during development that can distiguish rs and ls
  • as adults can't hear or say rs and ls differently
  • examples of apoptosis

23

Canadians vs. Americans

  • Americans have lost ability to hear 3 different sounds, but Canadians can
  • Ex: can't distiguish between about and a boot

24

learning language

  • many connections before age 5
  • connections decrease after 5 b/c cells that aren't used kill off
  • loose ability to distinguish 
  • Ex: why easier for younger kids to pick up numerous languages

25

Genie

  • when made noises she was beaten 
  • when found only spoke 2 english words b/c dad and mom didn't talk to her (just yelled)
  • shows that we have an INNATE tendency to pick up language 
  • IQ was above average, but was still unable to pick up language 

26

critical period

  • period at which language cortex kills itself after you haven't picked up a language
  • Genie was 13, so must be before 13

27

trying on different hats

  • during adolescence try different identities
  • whatever you practice at end of adolecence remains, while other cells associated with other things that don't fit
  • pick your rut well

28

frontal cortex

identity

29

cigarette companies

  • want to recruit adolescence b/c they will kill off cells that don't encourage smoking
  • stuck with additcted cells

30

what happens to a developing neuron that fails to reach its target

  • would be outlier and not truning on and off simultaneously with surrounding neurons
  • commit apoptosis- genetic tendency

31

how does neuron find its target

chemicals

32

why don't most neurons regenerate

  • connections are very numerous and complicated
  • no longer have chemical gradient to follow
  • BBB isolates neurons from chemical and pathogenic insults- no exposure means don't really need to

33

why do olfactory neurons regenerate 

  • they are stem cells (other neurons aren't)
  • connections are simple 
  • they are not isolated by BBB
  • exposed to chemical insults for your benefit and protection
  • olfatory neurons have to test for us 

34

what are 3 epochos characterized by massive apoptosis

1.) prenatal- before birth

2.) paranatal- after birth

3.) age 21- find identity then other connections not used die

35

what happens if inject NGF (nerve growth factor) antagonist into developing brain

  • massive widespread brain damage
  • none of the cells think they are connected in the right way
  • in a normal cell, only the nerves that think they are not normally connected kill themselves 

36

turpsichore

  • goddess of dance
  • chorea from Huntington's chorea

37

Huntington's chorea

  • dominant and lethal
  • lose inhibitory -> everything you do is excitatory
  • always overshoot destination 

38

incest

  • bad for genome to have sex with close relation
  • may express lethal genes that could have been avoided by having sex with someone who wasn't related
  • if both heteroygous, 1/4 chance of having a kid with lethal genes

39

homozygous for dominant w/ heterozygous for lethal

  • no kids express double recessive lethal version

40

Hapsberg

  • kept mating with each other so more and more prominant jaw

41

mutations

  • maladaptive
  • lethal
  • most often recessive

42

arranged marriage where you meet on wedding night

  • more successful

43

preventing recessive expression

  • repeled from people you don't want to have sex with (close relatives, friends)
  • genes don't want to have sex with closely related 

44

arranged marriage with childhood acquaintance

  • less successful b/c genes don't like to have sex with closely related 

45

combination of excitatory and inhibitory

  • essential for every move you make
  • don't get to destination as fast, but get there effectively and don't overshoot (as would if only excitatory)

46

only have excitatory movements

  • consequence of drinking b/c alcohol suppresses inhibitory senses
  • cells don't repolarize
  • overshoot destination 
  • ex: swining door- spring only

47

door w/o spring and shock absorber

  • spring- excitatory
  • shock absorber- inhibitory
  • stimulates motor neurons 

48

how can lethal gene be dominant

  • lethal at onset
  • lethal genes passed on to kids

49

Parkinson's disease

  • dopaminergic cells in substantia nigra fail to release dopamine -> can't move
  • loss of dopaminergic cells
  • typical onset after 45 years old
  • movement can be initiated by external influences

50

parkinson's and movement

  • can't initiate movement on your own- internally
  • externally- initiated actions are possible though
  • Ex: once complete first step, can go up all of them

51

MPTP

  • injection similar to heroin
  • one guy became paralyzed in rigid state- heroin paralysis is sloppy, not rigid
  • targets dopamine reuptake transporters
  • representation of what occurs with parkinson's

52

addictive drug

  • targets dopamine
  • cocaine, alcohol, heroin, etc
  • Marijuana and LSD NOT addictive

53

dopamine action

1.) dopamine release

2.) dopamine transporter release

3.) dopamine & transporter to soma

4.) in soma dopamine removed and recycled (repackaged)

54

blocking dopamine transferase

  • caused by MPTP in synapse
  • affinity of MPTP and dopamine transporter molecule is much greater than transporter affinity for dopamine

55

MPTP and dopamine transporter

  • high affinity
  • blocks up mitochondria
  • cell can't function w/o mitochondria
  • dopaminergic cell dies

56

treat parkinson's

  • L-dopa
  • stem cells

57

L-dopa

  • can cross blood brain barrier, unlike straight up dopamine
  • dopamine "bisquick"
  • remaining dopaminergic cells can use to make dopamine effectively w/o having to start from scratch 
  • temporary treatment for parkinson's b/c dopaminergic cells will continue to die

58

reason for reduced prevealence of Huntington's

  • gene testing lets person know they have the lethal gene and could pass it on
  • most people won't have kids and take risk

59

will we all develop parkinson's

yes b/c dopaminergic cells die off over time

60

negative symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ)

  • lacking something normal people have
  • flat affect
  • catatonia
  • waxy flexibility

61

substantia nigra

  • part of midbrain that plays a role in reward, addiction, and movement
  • death of dopaminergic neurons leads to Parkinson's 

62

dopamine and substantia nigra

  • loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra results in Parkinson's

63

schizophrenia

  • mental disorder characterized by a breakdown of thought processes and deficit of typical emotions 
  • Eugen Bleuler defined as split-mind
  • NOT multiple personality disorder 

64

diagnosing sz

  • negative and positive symptoms

65

positive symptoms sz

  • have something extra that normal people don't have
  • NOT such a good thing
  • psychotic cluster
  • disorganized cluster

66

affect

expression of feeling or emotion

67

psychotic cluster

  • positive symptom sz
  • generally expressed by age 30
  • hallucinations- generally auditory
  • delusions
  • paranoia

68

auditory hallucination

  • think hearing things but not
  • auditory context IS active

69

delusion

  • false belief

70

catatonia 

state of neurogenic motor immobility, and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor

71

paranoia

expectation of conspiracy

72

disorganized cluster

  • inability to keep self together 
  • invovles abnormal thinking and hygiene

73

causes sz

  • genetics
  • prenatal stress- flu, famine, etc
  • dopamine hypothesis

74

monozygotic twins raised apart

  • control nature (biology) and manipulate nurture
  • identical twins
  • 75% sz concordance rate

75

dizygotic twins raised together

  • manipulate nature (genes) and control nurture 
  • faternal twins- different genes
  • sz concordance rate is 25%

76

concordance rate

  • have schizophrenic
  • what are the odds relative has sz

77

do you inherit sz

  • no, the concordance rate would be 100%, but it's not
  • you inherit a sensitivity to sz (diathesis)

78

diathesis stress model of sz

  • inherit sensitivity to sz
  • increased chance if exposed to stress

79

stress during prenatal development

  • second trimester during flu season
  • mother stress, causes fetus to experience stress 
  • stress increases chance of sz

80

likelihood of sz if born in flu season

  • March, April, May
  • higher likelihood than childrne born in other months b/c of maternal stress during flu season 

81

prevelance of sz

  • increased for those born 3 months following flu season
  • northern hemisphere- march, april, may
  • southern hemisphere- sept, oct, nov

82

Starvation Winter

  • massive famine throughout Holland
  • prevelance of sz increased following famine- when pregos had babies
  • consequences of being in womb during starvation winter (stress)

83

brain damage sz

  • ventricles are larger than those w/o
  • prefrontal cortex smaller than those w/o
  • suspected to occur prenatally

84

onset sz symptoms

  • typically between 20-30 yrs old
  • pre-existing prenatal stress
  • post adolescent apoptosis results in complete use prefrontal cortex 
  • don't rely on prefrontal cortex until 21ish
  • when need PFC, psychosis due to prenatal stress starts to appear

85

dopamine hypothesis

  • anti-psychotic drugs block dopamine
  • Parkinson's is due to breakdown of dopaminergic cells
  • if you turn down dopamine, you get parkinson's and you turn down psychotic symptoms
  • Maybe psychotic symptoms are excess of dopamine

86

anti-psychotic drugs

  • haldol- dopamine antagonist that binds to dopamine receptors and doesn't activate, but blocks
  • some people that take anti-psychotic drugs get Parkinson's 

87

cocaine

  • amphtamine
  • dopamine agonist that turns up dopamine concentration
  • sz common in cocaine useres b/c sz characterized by excess of dopamine 

88

cerebro-vascular incident

  • stroke
  • caused by ischemia and hemorrhage
  • downstream neurons don't get glucose and oxygen b/c of lack of blood
  • damage/dead downstream neurons
  • Na/K pump slowed down

89

ischemia

  • blockage due to something in your blood vessel 

90

hemorrhage

  • hole in blood vessel
  • blood leaks out

91

therapy for damaged neurons resulting from stroke

  • can't do anything about the dead cells
  • is possible to reabilitate damaged cells
  • in damaged Na/K pump is slowed down
  • need to reabilitate penumbra cells before they become umbra cells
  • have to keep Na+ from building
  • have to stop glial cells

92

Penumbra

  • damaged cells near dead cells
  • need to be reabilitated after stroke

93

slow down of Na/K pump

  • result of stroke
  • not helped by glial cells
  • Na+ builds up inside cell, leading to over excitation and necrosis 
  • penumbra cells -> umbra cells (dead)

94

glial cells and stroke

  • release glutamate
  • glutamate is excitatory, so opens Na+ channels
  • not good since the Na/K pump is not working
  • Na+ builds up inside cell -> necrosis

95

why can't just depress penumbra cells with downer

  • only opens Cl- channels
  • doesn't do anything about Na+

96

hypothermia therapy penumbra cell

  • increased temp -> faster reaction
  • turn down brain temp -> slow glial cell release of glutamate -> not as much sodium build up -> ATP pump has time to catch up 
  • have to be unconscious
  • lower brain temp reduces destruction of brain tissue following stroke
  • reduces excitement
  • can't help necrotic cells

97

diachisis

  • sudden loss of brain activity 
  • stroke damage leads to less overall brain activity
  • immediate stimulant treatment is bad
  • heat and chemical stimulants (glutamate) are BAD for penumbra cells

98

stimulant and stroke

  • bad immediately after stroke b/c causes abundance of Na, which cant be removed effectively by Na/K pump (slow)
  • best a few days after stroke 

99

what kind of stroke did Cleo suffer from

  • hemorrhage

100

traditional first aid for stroke

  • place victim under a blanket and keep them warm
  • worst thing to do b/c heat speeds up brain reactions
  • didn't have meds then
  • blanket was to distract person treating victim 

101

cortical plasticity 

  • cant regenerate new neurons
  • take existing neurons and modify/improve connections

102

phantom limb in past

  • Lord Nelson thought was proof of his soul when he lost his arm
  • explanations were hysteria and wishful thinking
  • theroy of frayed (sloppy) nerve endings from battlefield surgery in civil war

103

phantom limb presently

  • frayed nerve endings not cause- proved by cleaning up amputations and no change in sensation
  • problem due to brain functions

104

primary somatosensory cortex (S1)

  • every spots is a "map" for a place on the body
  • discovered by Wilder Penfield

105

Penfield's epilepsy experiment

  • electrode in somatosensory cortex 
  • patient is awake for verbal response
  • applies current to different places
  • finds the spot where the patient feels tingling before seizure 
  • removes cells responsible for seizures

106

epilepsy

  • brain disorder characterized by seizures
  • synchronous neural firing
  • abnormal electrical activity in brain

107

sever monkey's sensory nerve

  • cut sensory nerve, but leave motor nerve in tact
  • even though motor nerve is fine, monkey treats arm like it is dead
  • when record in somatosensory cortex corresponding to arm, don't get activity if touch arm, but get activity when stroke cheek
  • Arm activity when face touched

108

Ramachandran

  • stroked cheek of motorcycler that lost his arm
  • said feels like stroking cheek AND finger
  • makes sense b/c somatosensory cortex map shows discontinuity between head and hand
  • face connection reorganized to hand in somatosensory 

109

relieve phantom pain Ramachandran

  • relief for left arm phantom pain
  • use mirror
  • put right arm in spot where feels like left arm is
  • patient feels relief

110

commonsensical notion of memory

  • I remember...

111

episodic memory

  • memory of event

112

semantic memory

  • factual memory 
  • word meanings

113

explicit memory

  • long term memories
  • kinds that you can describe in words
  • memory of experiences and information
  • conscious
  • Ex: stating that someone is a drunk

114

implicit memory

  • unconscious memory 
  • previous experiences aid in performance of a task
  • conditioning memories (fear or sensorimotor)
  • skill memories

115

epileptic focus

  • where/when seizure occurs
  • touch, smell, feeling, etc

116

bilateral medial temporal lobectomy 

  • H.M's procedure for seizures
  • tissue cut and removed
  • post-operative success- IQ increase
  • long term amnesia
  • can make conditioning memories
  • appears he lost hippocampi memories 

117

long-term amnesia

  • H.M's situation 
  • can't make new memories- episodic or semantic
  • new people, words, agining appearance, etc

118

classical conditioning

  • Pavlov and dogs drooling (unconditioned response) when sees meat (unconditioned stimulus)
  • Bell (neutral stimulus) preceding meat causes drooling
  • dog associates bell with meat
  • bell alone -> drool (conditioned response): bell is no longer neutral b/c dog conditioned to stimulus 

119

fear conditioning 

  • Edouard Claparede 
  • patient shakes hands with doc every time he walks in b/c doesn't remember him
  • one day doc walks in with pin in his hand
  • patient refuses to shake his hand next time 
  • doc's face now associated with pain
  • doc face is conditioned stimulus and fear is conditioned response
  • seems like she can make new memories if associated with fear (would've worked for H.M)

120

pain

  • unconditioned stimulus
  • fear is the unconditioned response 

121

sensorimotor conditioning in H.M

  • tone -> puff -> blink

122

eye doctor and conditioning

  • puff of air- unconditioned stimulus
  • blink- unconditioned response
  • tone -> puff -> blink
  • tone becomes conditioned stimulus and blink is conditioned response

123

Brenda Miller

  • mirror drawing
  • showed H.M a star with a road around it
  • told H.M to take pen and follow the road w/o looking at the star (can only see star in mirror)
  • ability judged by # mistakes 
  • begins poorly, but improves with practice
  • H.M can't remember the experiences of practice, so can't explain why he can do it
  • implicit memory of skill

124

Morris water maze

  • island in pool but can't see b/c water is murkey
  • uninjured rat can swim and find island and then find it quickly upon next trial
  • rat with hipocampal lesion cannot find island easily next time around
  • hippocampus plays a role in mapping/navigation

125

London cabs

  • cab drivers have massive hippocampi
  • as driving experience increases there is a linear increase in hippocampus size
  • exercise hippocampus -> gets bigger

126

H. M and the hippocampus

  • forced us to reconsider what memory means
  • short term memory in tact
  • explicit long term memory broken 
  • has 2 yrs of retrograde amnesia
  • has majority of anterograde amnesia
  • recall of both explicit and implicit in tack
  • implicit stroage in tact (fear, blink, mirror)
  • CAN'T recall any explicit after surgery 

127

amnesia

  • no memory

128

memory

  • short or long term (test w/ 7 digit recall)

129

long term memory storage and recall

  • long term- explicit and implicit
  • memories are stored, but some are not recalled
  • degree of brain trauma determines how much is lost
  • takes a much as 2 hours to move things into long term memory 

130

retrograde amnesia

  • can't remember past
  • H.M's is diffuse (can't remember from 25-27)
  • playback broken

131

anterograde amnesia

  • don't store forward (new) memories
  • record button broken

132

8 kinds of memory

  • explicit storage
  • explicit recall
  • implicit conditioning fear (recall and retrieval)- hand shake
  • implicit conditioning sensorimotor (recall and retrieval)- blink test
  • implicit memory skill (recall and retrieval)- mirror

133

Why did Brenda Milner ask H.M. to learn mirrior-drawing

  • proves that he can learn a new skill
  • something he has never done before
  • shows that he has implicit in tact

134

fear conditioning

  • Skinner box for classical conditioning
  • warn rat with tone before zapping feet
  • after learning tone rat shows fear to hearing it 

135

Joseph LeDoux

  • studied conditioning in rats- looking for location of "fear" memory
  • cut out part of rat brain after fear conditioning it 
  • decorticated, thalamotomized, and amygdalized

136

hearing sense

  • ears -> thalamus -> auditory cortex

137

decorticate out rat's auditory cortex

  • LeDoux cut out auditory cortex
  • profoundly deaf rat
  • play tone
  • still get fear response
  • Interpretation: fear memory must not be in auditory cortex

138

thalamotomized rat

  • LeDoux cuts out thalamus
  • play tone
  • fear response abolished
  • Interpretation: thalamus can't store memories, so fear response stored in thalamus projection location (amygdala)

139

amygdalized rat

  • not deaf
  • in tact thalamus and auditory cortex
  • plays tone
  • fear response abolished
  • Interpretation: amygdala stores fear memories

140

two ways to amygdala

  • thalamus to amygdala (fast response- low road)
  • auditory cortex to amygdala (slow response- high road)
  • amygdala then instigates behaviors based on emotion (Ex: rat hunkering down in response to fear)

141

why afraid when underwater

  • natural response is to clear airway
  • thats why you move frantically and breathe out
  • cortex knows you're alright (slow road), but amygdala is quick to overreact 

142

overactive low road

  • panic
  • thalamus to amygdala
  • intuitive system
  • fast, but rough

143

overactive high road

  • cortex to amygdala
  • "chocking"
  • overthinking
  • deliberative system
  • slow, but flexible

144

intuitive system

  • thalamus to amygdala
  • fast, but rough

145

deliberative system

  • cortext to amygdala
  • fast, but flexible

146

H.M memory

  • long term implicit in tact
  • long term explicit not in tact
  • skill learning is in tact (implicit)
  • fear learing is in tact (implicit)
  • sensory motor in tact (implicit)

147

acquisition 

 
  • acquire an association between neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus
  • Ex: tone with puff causes blink

148

extinction

  • break connection 
  • after learning repeatedly present neutral stimulus w/o unconditioned stimulus
  • Ex: play tone repeatedly w/o puff of air

149

fear conditioning acquisition

  • fast

150

fear conditioning extinction

  • slow

151

sensorimotor conditioning acquisition

  • relatively slow
  • stimulus is less dangerous

152

sensorimotor conditioning extinction

  • fast

153

sensorimotor vs fear conditioning

  • different behaviors and physiology
  • fear in amygdala
  • sensorimotor in cerebellum

154

Richard Thompson

  • tried to identify location of sensorimotor conditioning
  • taught bunny to blink after tone (sensorimotor conditioning) 
  • chilled bunny cerebellum -> turn down
  • inject GABA into cerebellum -> turn down
  • bunny isn't harmed b/c chilling and GABA reversible
  • after chill or GABA, bunny no longer blinks after tone
  • after chill or GABA reversed (recovers), tone association is recovered 

155

how are fear and sensorimotor conditioning distinct

  • quicker to pick up and slower to distinguish fear conditioning
  • differences physiologically (amygdala vs. cerebellum)

156

what is physiological substate of panic

  • overactive low road to amygdala
  • quick responses that aren't flexible
  • overactive high road to amygdala is choking

157

Lashley and maze learning

  • wanted to find out where old memories were b/c H.M had old explicit memories
  • rat motivated by food to find his way through the maze
  • rat makes fewer mistakes every time going through maze
  • like the rat has map of maze in head
  • Lashley cut a particular chunk out of each rat's cortex
  • Rats still didn't make any mistakes after cuts, regardless of location
  • Conclusion: effect of cut location means nothing, but size of cut influences performance

158

effects of cut size

  • bigger cut results in a more blurred memory 
  • still have all memories, they are just blurry
  • memories are like recipes, not blueprints
  • forget butter, cake is still cake, just blurred
  • if you cut out bluprint, something is missing

159

Morris water maze vs Lashley maze

  • M: brain damage before learning
  • M: fast trial in maze
  • M: damaged rats in 2nd trial, wander like it was 1st trial
  • M: no damage rats in 2nd trial- find island instantly
  • M: damage to hippocampus
  • M: damage precedes and abolishes learning
  • L: brain damage after learning
  • L: different locations and sizes of damage (cut lateral temporally)
  • L: damage to lateral temporal after learning does NOT abolish learning
  • Conclusion: memories are stored in lateral temporal, they are just smeared across

160

working memory

  • kind of like short term memory
  • enables us to organize and control thoughts
  • flexibly respond to changing conditions
  • maintainance of a goal and ability to achieve it

161

Phineas Gage

  • metal rod went through skull between optic nerves and removed with no problem
  • vision, thinking, perception, language all fine
  • personality changed 
  • lost impulse control (frontal lobe damage)
  • working memory is gone

162

Egas Moniz

  • cut out frontal cortex of chimps
  • poked at frontal lobe of violent psychotics
  • successful in chaning personality
  • led to the 40,000 lobectomies in US

163

transorbital frontal lobotomy 

  • ice pick through eye to brain
  • Egas Moniz
  • success
  • resulted in pleasant psychotics
  • lose who you are and your will 

164

Wisconsin card sorting

  • assessing frontal lobe syndrome
  • assesses working memory 
  • can sort cards by number, color, or shape

165

Korsakoff's syndrome

  • brain damage in frontal cortex and lateral temporal cortex 
  • lateral temporal cortex where old memories are 
  • retrograde amnesia and impulse control gone

166

confabulation

  • making things up
  • and believing it b/c don't have any old memories to make you think otherwise
  • characteristic of Korsakoff's syndrome

167

timecourse for retrograde amnesia for H.M

  • 2 years
  • tells us hippocampus holds memories for 2 yrs

168

timecourse retrograde amnesia following ECT

  • 2 hours
  • takes about 2 hours to make memories solid

169

retrograde amnesia for Korsakoff sufferers

  • no limit
  • can go all the way back to child
  • cutting out ALL memories