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Flashcards in Unit 2 book notes Deck (62):
1

The case of Genie emphasizes the role of

experience in human neural and psychological development

2

The very first cells to develop in the embryo are

totipotent.

3

An hypothesis that explains how growth cones find their way to their targets is the

radial glial hypothesis and cell-adhesion hypothesis

4

Frogs, unlike mammals, have retinal ganglion cells that are capable of

regeneration

5

In a classic study, Sperry cut the optic nerves of frogs, rotated their eyes 180°, and waited for regeneration. Once the frogs regained their vision, there was evidence that

despite the eye rotation, each axon grew out from the retina to the same area of the optic tectum to which it had originally been connected

6

In vitro, neurons will form synapses

with almost any neuron

7

Evidence suggests that many neurons die during development because of

their inability to compete successfully for their target's neurotrophins

8

Most of the cell death associated with early development of the brain is

apoptotic

9

Apoptosis is safer than necrosis because apoptosis does not involve

inflammation

10

The development of the human brain is unique in that

it develops so slowly

11

The course of human cognitive development is thought to reflect the development in

prefrontal cortex

12

Neurons and synapses that are not activated by experience usually

do not survive

13

It is now generally acknowledged that adult brains are

capable of major adaptation

14

The first evidence that new neurons can be created in the brains of adult animals came in the early1980s from the study of

songbirds

15

mammals, adult neurogenesis occurs in the

hippocampus
olfactory bulb

16

Considering their mental retardation, people with Williams syndrome tend to have remarkably good

language ability

17

If a person developed a brain tumor as a result of chronic cigarette smoking, the tumor would likely be

metastatic
malignant

18

Following cerebral ischemia

glutamate is released in excessive quantities

19

In a car accident, a woman banged the front of her head on the steering wheel. A subsequent CT scan revealed a subdural hematoma over the left occipital lobe. The woman clearly had suffered a

contrecoup injury
contusion

20

The punch-drunk syndrome suggests that each individual concussion is associated with

dementia

21

Neurological disorders are rarely caused by dominant genes

because all individuals carrying them would be at a major disadvantage in terms of
survival and reproduction.

22

Necrotic cell death

usually involves inflammation

23

An epileptic focus is a site in the brain of an epileptic patient

at which discharges originating at other sites tend to be synchronized.

24

Which of the following is likely to lead to the label of daydreamer?

petite mal epilepsy

25

Parkinson's disease typically strikes in

middle or late adulthood

26

Although L-DOPA does have some beneficial effects, it is not a solution to the problem of Parkinson’s disease because it

typically becomes less and less therapeutically effective with use

27

Which general class of drugs is useful in treating Parkinson's disease

dopamine agonist

28

Huntington's disease is caused by

single dominant gene

29

If one of your parents develops Huntington's disease, the probability that you will also develop it is

50%

30

Currently, people with Huntington's disease live for an average of ____ after the first appearance of symptoms.

15 yrs

31

the last few decades, the number of cases of Huntington's disease has declined as the result

tests for the gene that discourage carriers from having children

32

Multiple sclerosis appears to result from

faulty auto-immune rxn

33

The most common cause of dementia is

Alzheimer's disease

34

The first treatments for Alzheimer's disease were

cholinergic agonists

35

Kindling is considered to be a model of

human epileptogenesis.

36

In primates, MPTP produces damage in

substantia nigra

37

In one study, Kapur (1997) studied the effects of brain damage on doctors and scientists. He concluded that

their cognitive reserve allowed them to compensate for their cognitive deficits by
accomplishing cognitive tasks in alternative ways, even though they did not recover lost
functions.

38

Bilateral transplantation of fetal substantia nigra tissue in monkeys has proven successful in alleviating the symptoms o

MPTP poisoning.

39

Why was autotransplantation tried as a treatment for Parkinson's disease

the adrenal cortex releases dopamine

40

Efforts to cure phantom limb pain have focused on destroying various components of the pathway from the stump to the cortex. About ____ of patients have received permanent benefit from this treatment.

0%

41

The brain operation performed on H.M. is called a

bilateral medial temporal lobectomy

42

If you were going to illustrate the extent of H.M.'s lesion, you could accomplish this best if you drew H.M.'s brain from ____ perspective

inferior

43

H.M.'s surgery was a success in that

his IQ was increased

44

H.M.'s greatest postsurgical problem is his

anterograde amnesia

45

On which of the following tests did H.M. display substantial long-term memory as indicated by improved performance?

block-tapping
Pavlovian

46

nutshell, H.M.'s main problem seems to be that he

can form no new explicit long-term memories

47

Why do we have two memory systems - explicit and implicit - which are both capable of learning the same material? What advantage is there in having a second, conscious system? Recent evidence suggests that the answer is

greater flexibility

48

One major difference between the amnesia associated with advanced Korsakoff's syndrome and that associated with bilateral medial temporal lobe damage is that patients with advanced Korsakoff's syndrome have

a retrograde amnesia that can extend back into childhood

49

It is difficult to differentiate between anterograde and retrograde amnesia in Korsakoff patients because

Korsakoff's syndrome has a gradual onset.

50

Alzheimer's amnesia is usually studied in

predementia Alzheimer's patients

51

Alzheimer's disease, the brain damage is

diffuse

52

The retrograde amnesia associated with closed-head injury has been frequently studied in laboratory animals by

1.) administering ECS
2.) using multiple-trial learning tests so that the time of learning was less precisely specified

53

In retrospect, the major reason for the initial difficulty in developing an animal model of human medial temporal lobe amnesia was that efforts focused on

implicit memory tests
hippocampus

54

Hippocampal lesions in rats reliably disrupt performance of tasks that involve memory for

spatial location

55

Some hippocampal neurons become active only when the subject is

in particular places

56

When rats are NOT sure where they are, their place cells fire in accordance with where they

came from

57

Food-caching species of birds tend to have ____ hippocampi than non-food-caching species

larger

58

The current consensus is that memories of experiences are likely stored

diffusely throughout the structures of the brain that participated in the original
experience.

59

The amygdala appears to be involved in the ____ component of memory, whereas the cerebellum appears to be involved in the ____ component.

emotional
sensorimotor

60

One famous patient with prefrontal damage could not cook because she could not

carry out the various steps in proper sequence

61

Approximately what proportion of healthy people experience infantile amnesia

100%

62

Recent studies have demonstrated that infantile amnesia can occur for ____ memories without affecting ____ memories for the same information

explicit; implicit