unit 10 lecture 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in unit 10 lecture 1 Deck (37):
1

developmental psycology

the study of physical ad pychological changes that are commonly associated with the different ages of our life

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cros sectional design

involve measuring groups of people at a single point in time but that differ in thei age

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longitudinal design

involves measuring the same group of people at different points in time

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attrition

withdrawl of participants from a study over time

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cross sectional designs

have the potential confound of cohort effects (people that are different ages also developed in different time periods

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developmental stages

lifespanchanges roceed through patterns of stability followed by periods of more rapid transition

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sensitive periods

the points of rapid change that mark points of transition between developmental stages

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combination of one egg and one sperm =

zygote

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germinal stage: inner clusters of cell forms the _______.. the outer ring of cells form the _______

developing embryo, developing placenta

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germinal stage takes place from

0-2 weeks

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embryotic stage takes place

2-8 weeks

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the fetal stage takesplace

8 weeks - birth

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maternal malnurishment

increases the risk of giving birth to lower weight newborns that are more prone to illness and mental functioning

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teratogens

substances tht neatively affect the process of development in utero

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preterm infants

the chance of a babies survival if it is born at only 25 weeks is about 50% and the babies that do survive suffer permanent famage to their brain and other organs

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sudden infant death syndrome

-infants die because they stop breathing
-exposure to 2nd hand smoke can cause this

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infant sensory abilities

infants enter the world preferring their mothers voice over other voices
-infant vision is well designed to fascilitate interactions with their mothers while breastfeeding

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infants social abilities

infants imitate adults facial expressions

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infant tasting abilities

about as good as adults

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infants smell

as good as adults

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after birth human brain development continues

myelination of axons to speed transmission of signals

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synaptogenesis

(the creation of neural connections)

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synaptic pruning

deleting unecessary or weak neural connections

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infant reflexes

involuntary motor actions that helpp newborn infants adapt to life outside of the uterus

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rooting reflex

stimulating the corner of an infants mouth will result in the baby turning its head and start sucking

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moro reflex

newborns react with a tartle respone whenever they lose support of their head

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grasping reflex

when babies palm causes them to tighten grasp

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motor developmeny

proces of babies learning to walk

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jean piaget

child cognitive development studies


"assimilation" - people acquire new knowledge by relating it to what we already know... ie if kid has only seen cats before, the first time it sees a dog they may identify it as a cat... once this incorrect response is corrected, that is called accommodation

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piagets stages of development: sensorimotor stage

birth to age 2
-all of the childs awareness is tied to their sensory experience. not yet capable of any thought eperate from what they directly ee/feel/taste/etc

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piagets stages of development: preoperational stage

age 2-7
--accomplishments include language acquisition and symbols (ie numbers)
-increase ability of imagination

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object permanance

an awareness that objects continue to exist when we are unable to directly percieve them

-part of senorimotor stage

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conservation

learning that changes in the perceptual features of a substance doesnt change the substances volume or quanitity - partt of preoperational stage

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scale errors

early in preoperational stage, children confuse scale models of objects with the real thing

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piagets stages of development - concrete operations stage

7-11

acquire skills in thinking logically, perform operations with numbers, classify objects based on size shape and colour

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transitivity..

if X>Y and Y>Z then X>Z

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piagets stages of development - frmal operational stage

11-adulthood

-increasing complexity of reasoning capacity and the ability ti think about abstract concepts

-ability to adopt a scientific approach to problems also emerges at this stage