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Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (76):
1

A hypothesis is...

A prediction

2

Hypothesis that indicates a direction in results

Directional

3

Hypothesis that doesn’t indicate a direction in results

Non directional

4

Null hypothesis means ...

Prediction won’t happen - if so by chance

5

Operationalisation means

How you intend to measure the DV

6

An extraneous variable is...

Any variable except the IV that influences findings

7

Situational variable is ...

An extraneous variable that’s in the environment
Eg earthquake, hot sunny day

8

Participant variable is...

An extraneous variable caused by the participant
Eg: stress, being ill, tiredness

9

A confounding variable ....

Effects findings so much you’re no longer measuring what was intended

10

Covariables are ....

Associated variables - but doesn’t say how or why

11

Lab experiment is....

Takes place in a controlled environment
IV manipulated to see effect on DV

12

Field experiment is.....

Takes place in a more natural environment/real life setting
IV manipulated to see effect on DV

13

Natural experiment is ....

Takes place in a real life setting
IV left to naturally occur to see effect on DV

14

2 Benefits 2 drawbacks of lab experiments

+ high control + establish cause and effect
- artificial - demand characteristics

15

2 Benefits 2 drawbacks of field experiments

+ real life + ecologically valid
- limited variable control - difficult to replicate

16

2 Benefits 2 drawbacks of natural experiments

+ real life + ecologically valid
- not replicable - no control over variables

17

4 types of Naturalistic observation

Covert
Overt
Participant
Non participant

18

Covert observations...

Participants are unaware of the observation

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Overt observations....

Participants know about the observation

20

1 benefit and 1 drawback of covert observation

+ validly
- unethical

21

1 benefit and 1 drawback of overt observation

+ ethical
- demand characteristics

22

1 benefit and 1 drawback of participant observation

+ practical
- may lack notes

23

1 benefit and 1 drawback of non participant observation

+ practical
- validity

24

Structured observations take place in...

Takes place in a lab
NOT an experiment!

25

1 benefit and 1 drawback of a structured observation

+ reliable
- poor validity

26

What is content analysis

A way of systematically describing written/spoken/visual communication
Provides quantitative data

27

3 benefits of content analysis

+ accounts for individual difference
+ establish behaviour causes
+ good to study emotion

28

3 drawbacks of content analysis

- not scientific
- can’t generalise
- lacks validity

29

Process of content analysis

1- draw up categories
2- tally, counting references to each category

30

3 types of interview

Structured
Unstructured
Semi structured

31

Types of question in a questionnaire

Open ended question
Closed questions

32

2 benefits to interviews

+ generalisable if sample is representative
+ easy to repeat

33

2 drawbacks to interviews

- objective
- unreliable answers

34

2 benefits to questionnaires

+ easy to gain large sample
+ easy to replicate

35

2 drawbacks to questionnaires

- unhonest response
- subjective

36

3 benefits to quantitative data

+ easy conclusions
+ scientific
+ superficial

37

2 drawbacks to quantitative data

- lacks validity
- narrow information

38

3 benefit is to qualitative data

+ meaningful and valid
+ ecological validity
+ can convert to quantitative

39

2 drawbacks to qualitative data

- hard to compare
- less scientific

40

Sampling frame where everyone has an equal chance

Random

41

Sampling frame where frost available is taken

Opportunity

42

Sampling frame where every Nth person is chosen

Systematic

43

Sampling frame where population is categorised and chosen in same proportions

Stratified

44

Sampling frame where target no. of participants of different groups

Quota

45

Sampling frame where participants volunteer themselves

Volunteer

46

Sampling frame where participant offers up another participant

Snowballing

47

Types of snowball Sampling

Non discrimative exponential
Discriminate exponential

48

1 benefit 1 drawback of random sampling

+ unbiased
- issues in being representative

49

1 benefit 1 drawback of opportunity sampling

+ easy and quick
- not representative

50

1 benefit 1 drawback of systematic sampling

+ representative sample
- can be difficult

51

1 benefit 1 drawback of stratified sampling

+ very representative
- time consuming

52

1 benefit 1 drawback of quota sampling

+ focused research
- not always representative, can be bias

53

1 benefit 1 drawback of volunteer sampling

+ motivated people
- not representative

54

1 benefit 1 drawback of snowballing sampling

+ good for minorities
- little control

55

2 Observational sampling techniques

Time sampling
Situation/event sampling

56

4 types of experimental design

Independent measures
Repeated measures
Matched pairs
Counterbalanced design

57

Independent measures design involves....

Different participants from different groups

58

1 benefit 1 weakness of independent measures

+ no order effects
- participant variables

59

Repeated measures involves....

Participants doing both sets of conditions

60

1 benefit 1 weakness of repeated measures

+ no individual differences
- no order effect. - demand characteristics

61

Matched pairs involves.....

Match participants into both groups via characteristics and treat as independent measures

62

1 benefit 1 weakness of matched pairs

+ no order effect
- participant variables

63

4 levels of measurement

Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio

64

Nominal data has...

Exclusive categories with no relative rank

65

Ordinal data has....

Ranked exclusive categories where attributes are ordered via rank

66

Interval data has.....

Continuous scale - no absolute 0

67

Ratio data has....

Continuous scale that has an absolute 0

68

Internal Reliability can be measured by...

Split half method

69

External reliability can be measured using....

Test rated method
Inter-rather reliability

70

2 issues within validity

Demand characteristics
Researcher bias

71

How to solve validity issues

Single blind design
Double blind design
Experimental realism

72

2 benefits of case studies

Valid and rich data
Ecologically valid

73

2 drawbacks of case studies

Low generalisability
Not replicable

74

2 types of research methods

Longitudinal
Cross sectional

75

2 benefits 2 weakness of longitudinal research methods

+ no participant variables
+ easy comparisons
- hard to keep participants
- issues with generalisability

76

2 benefits 2 weaknesses of cross sectional research

+ cheaper
+ easier to get funding
- cannot compare
- participant variables