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Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (109):
1

A hypothesis is...

A prediction

2

Hypothesis that indicates a direction in results

Directional

3

Hypothesis that doesn’t indicate a direction in results

Non directional

4

Null hypothesis means ...

Prediction won’t happen - if so by chance

5

Operationalisation means

How you intend to measure the DV

6

An extraneous variable is...

Any variable except the IV that influences findings

7

Situational variable is ...

An extraneous variable that’s in the environment
Eg earthquake, hot sunny day

8

Participant variable is...

An extraneous variable caused by the participant
Eg: stress, being ill, tiredness

9

A confounding variable ....

Effects findings so much you’re no longer measuring what was intended

10

Covariables are ....

Associated variables - but doesn’t say how or why

11

Lab experiment is....

Takes place in a controlled environment
IV manipulated to see effect on DV

12

Field experiment is.....

Takes place in a more natural environment/real life setting
IV manipulated to see effect on DV

13

Natural experiment is ....

Takes place in a real life setting
IV left to naturally occur to see effect on DV

14

2 Benefits 2 drawbacks of lab experiments

+ high control + establish cause and effect
- artificial - demand characteristics

15

2 Benefits 2 drawbacks of field experiments

+ real life + ecologically valid
- limited variable control - difficult to replicate

16

2 Benefits 2 drawbacks of natural experiments

+ real life + ecologically valid
- not replicable - no control over variables

17

4 types of Naturalistic observation

Covert
Overt
Participant
Non participant

18

Covert observations...

Participants are unaware of the observation

19

Overt observations....

Participants know about the observation

20

1 benefit and 1 drawback of covert observation

+ validly
- unethical

21

1 benefit and 1 drawback of overt observation

+ ethical
- demand characteristics

22

1 benefit and 1 drawback of participant observation

+ practical
- may lack notes

23

1 benefit and 1 drawback of non participant observation

+ practical
- validity

24

Structured observations take place in...

Takes place in a lab
NOT an experiment!

25

1 benefit and 1 drawback of a structured observation

+ reliable
- poor validity

26

What is content analysis

A way of systematically describing written/spoken/visual communication
Provides quantitative data

27

3 benefits of content analysis

+ accounts for individual difference
+ establish behaviour causes
+ good to study emotion

28

3 drawbacks of content analysis

- not scientific
- can’t generalise
- lacks validity

29

Process of content analysis

1- draw up categories
2- tally, counting references to each category

30

3 types of interview

Structured
Unstructured
Semi structured

31

Types of question in a questionnaire

Open ended question
Closed questions

32

2 benefits to interviews

+ generalisable if sample is representative
+ easy to repeat

33

2 drawbacks to interviews

- objective
- unreliable answers

34

2 benefits to questionnaires

+ easy to gain large sample
+ easy to replicate

35

2 drawbacks to questionnaires

- unhonest response
- subjective

36

3 benefits to quantitative data

+ easy conclusions
+ scientific
+ superficial

37

2 drawbacks to quantitative data

- lacks validity
- narrow information

38

3 benefit is to qualitative data

+ meaningful and valid
+ ecological validity
+ can convert to quantitative

39

2 drawbacks to qualitative data

- hard to compare
- less scientific

40

Sampling frame where everyone has an equal chance

Random

41

Sampling frame where first available is taken

Opportunity

42

Sampling frame where every Nth person is chosen

Systematic

43

Sampling frame where population is categorised and chosen in same proportions

Stratified

44

Sampling frame where target no. of participants of different groups

Quota

45

Sampling frame where participants volunteer themselves

Volunteer

46

Sampling frame where participant offers up another participant

Snowballing

47

Types of snowball Sampling

Non discrimative exponential
Discriminate exponential

48

1 benefit 1 drawback of random sampling

+ unbiased
- issues in being representative

49

1 benefit 1 drawback of opportunity sampling

+ easy and quick
- not representative

50

1 benefit 1 drawback of systematic sampling

+ representative sample
- can be difficult

51

1 benefit 1 drawback of stratified sampling

+ very representative
- time consuming

52

1 benefit 1 drawback of quota sampling

+ focused research
- not always representative, can be bias

53

1 benefit 1 drawback of volunteer sampling

+ motivated people
- not representative

54

1 benefit 1 drawback of snowballing sampling

+ good for minorities
- little control

55

2 Observational sampling techniques

Time sampling
Situation/event sampling

56

4 types of experimental design

Independent measures
Repeated measures
Matched pairs
Counterbalanced design

57

Independent measures design involves....

Different participants from different groups

58

1 benefit 1 weakness of independent measures

+ no order effects
- participant variables

59

Repeated measures involves....

Participants doing both sets of conditions

60

1 benefit 1 weakness of repeated measures

+ no individual differences
- no order effect. - demand characteristics

61

Matched pairs involves.....

Match participants into both groups via characteristics and treat as independent measures

62

1 benefit 1 weakness of matched pairs

+ no order effect
- participant variables

63

4 levels of measurement

Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio

64

Nominal data has...

Exclusive categories with no relative rank

65

Ordinal data has....

Ranked exclusive categories where attributes are ordered via rank

66

Interval data has.....

Continuous scale - no absolute 0

67

Ratio data has....

Continuous scale that has an absolute 0

68

Internal Reliability can be measured by...

Split half method

69

External reliability can be measured using....

Test rated method
Inter-rather reliability

70

2 issues within validity

Demand characteristics
Researcher bias

71

How to solve validity issues

Single blind design
Double blind design
Experimental realism

72

2 benefits of case studies

Valid and rich data
Ecologically valid

73

2 drawbacks of case studies

Low generalisability
Not replicable

74

2 types of research methods

Longitudinal
Cross sectional

75

2 benefits 2 weakness of longitudinal research methods

+ no participant variables
+ easy comparisons
- hard to keep participants
- issues with generalisability

76

2 benefits 2 weaknesses of cross sectional research

+ cheaper
+ easier to get funding
- cannot compare
- participant variables

77

3 types of brain scans

CAT scan (computed axial tomography)
MRI scan (magnetic resonance imaging)
PET scan (positron emission tomography)

78

2 benefits of a CAT scan

+ useful for abnormal structures
+ provides higher quality pictures

79

2 weaknesses of CAT scans

- more radiation than X-rays
- only structural info

80

2 benefits of an MR scan

+ more detailed soft tissue than CAT
+ no radiation

81

2 weaknesses of MRI scans

- can take a long time
- can be comfortable

82

2 benefits of PET scans

+ real chemical info
+ show brain activity

83

2 weaknesses of PET scan

- extremely costly
- less precise than MRI

84

CAT scans are....

Series of X-rays, combined too form 2D/3D pictures

85

MRI scans involve..

Magnetic field causes atoms in brain to change their alignment when the magnes on, they emit radio signals when off

86

PET scans involve....

Administering a radioactive tracer (glucose), radiation detectors can see areas & build picture of activity

87

Ethical issues that need to be considered are....

Confidentiality
Deception
Risk of harm
Risk of values
Informed consent
Debriefing

88

A peer review is ....

An assessment of scientific work by others who are experts in the same field

89

1 benefit and 2 weaknesses of a peer review

+ improved validity
- hard to find an expert
- publication bias

90

What was the aims of milligrams obedience study?

Look at levels of obedience when told by an authourative figure

91

Methodology of milgrams study

Lab experiment
40males 20-50 years
‘Study of memory’
took place at Yale uni

92

Procedures of milgrams study

1. Draw slips to identify learner (confederate) and teacher — this is rigged!!!
2. L strapped to chair, T taken to adjacent room
3. T reads series of word pairs, L asked to learnt them
4. T gives the word with 4 others, L asked to identify what word is the pair
5. L answers via switches
6. If correct, T move on, if wrong gives shock
7. Subsequent wrong answers, shock increases
8. If t wanted to stop, prods/ encouragement were given

93

Results of milgrams study

100% obeyed up to 300V
65% gave the full 450V

94

Conclusions of milgrams study

Social setting is a powerful behaviour determinant
Socialised to recognise authority and obey it

95

Strengths of milgrams study

G
R- lab experience the, standardised, consistent results
A- relates to blind obedience in holocaust
V- high experimental validity
E- all debriefed, all examined by physistians

96

Weaknesses of milgrams study

G- 40 males, androcentric, ethnocentric
R
A
V- low ecological validity, low population validity
E- inadequate protection, no informed consent, filmed on hidden camera, right to withdraw prevented

97

Aim of kohlbergs moral philosopher study

Develop on ideas of Piaget on moral development

98

Methodology of kohlbergs study

72 Chicago boys 10-16yrs
58 followed for 20 years
Cross sectional study
Repeated measures

99

Procedure of kohlbergs study

1. 2 hour interview based on 10 dilemmas eg. Hienz dilemma
2. Asked questions on thee dilemmas eg ‘should he have stolen?’ ‘Would it change if...?’
3. Looked at reasons for their decision not if they were morally right or wrong

100

Findings of kohlbergs study

- reasons changed as participants got older
- 3 distinct levels, 2 sub levels in each (preconventional, conventional, postconventional)
- no everyone achieves them all

101

What are the 3 levels of development according to kohlbergs?

Preconventional (3-7yrs)
Conventional (8-13 yrs)
Postconventional (adulthood)

102

Strengths of kohlbergs study

G-
R- standardised scenarios, supporting research
A- helped parenting techniques
V
E- briefed and debriefed, content, right to withdraw

103

Weaknesses of Kohlbergs study

G- all male fom Chicago, androcentric and ethnocentric
R- cross sectional, thus different upbringings = extraneous variable
A
V- artificial, lacks ecological validity, sample bias lacks population validity
E- one distress caused by dilemmas

104

What was the aim of personal investigation 1 on perception

To see if context influences perception of an ambiguous stimulus

105

What inferential stat test was used in PI1 and why?

Chi squared
Study had nominal data, independent measures, tested association

106

1 Reliability issue with PI1 and how to solve it

- noise caused poor concentration - complete in a quiet area

107

2 validity issues in PI1

1. Artificial, low ecological validity — do similar tests regularly
2. Unrepresentative (opp sample) — use a systematic sample technique

108

What inferential stat was used in PI and why?

Spearmans rho
See strength of correlation, unrelated covariable s, ordinal/interval data

109

What are the 5 inferential statistic tests

Chi squared
Sign
Mann Whitney
Wilcoxon
Spearmans rho