Unit 2 - Diversity Flashcards

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1
Q

What are the parts of the Linnaean System for classification?

A

DKPCOFGS (Dear King Philip Came Over For Great Sex)
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.

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2
Q

What are the DKPCOFGS for Homo sapiens?

A

DOMAIN: Eukarya, KINGDOM: Animalia, PHYLUM: Chordates (have properties such as dorsal central nervous system), CLASS: Mammals, ORDER: Primates, FAMILY: Hominidae (Apes), GENUS: Homo (humans), SPECIES: sapiens.

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3
Q

What is the binomial naming system?

A

Genus species. (both are italicized / underlined by hand) because they are Latin words.

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4
Q

What is the name of the new classifying system? How does it classify species?

A

Phylogenetics classifies species based on monophyletic groups (groups with common ancestors). Uses DNA sequence homology.

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5
Q

What is cladistics?

A

A very mathematical approach to phylogenetics, grouping species based on DNA homology. Ex. Chimps and human have 96% DNA homology.

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6
Q

What are the types of Fungi? Give one example for each.

A

Mold, sac fungi (yeast), club fungi (mushrooms, imperfect fungi (cheese).

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7
Q

What is an emergent property?

A

A property which is present in the whole but not in the parts making it. (When the whole is more than the sum of the parts)

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8
Q

What are the 4 macromolecules?

A

Lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids.

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9
Q

What are the 3 simple sugars?

A

Glucose, fructose, galactose.

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10
Q

Which cells are closely related to Fungi? How do they ressemble them?

A

Animal cells. Both cell types have chitin, they share a more recent common ancestor than plants and Fungi do, and animal muscle fibers closerly ressemble hyphae in Fungi.

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11
Q

What is the most likely ancestor to the eukaryotic cell?

A

Archaebacteria.

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12
Q

What is the relationship between the mitochondria and the cell?

A

The mitochondria is an organelle that used to be a free-living bacteria. Proofs are that mitochondria perform binary fission, they have a prokaryotic inner membrane (cristae), and have their own DNA.

Their relatioship is called Endosynbiosis. This means one organism living inside the other.

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13
Q

What sizes are Eukaryotic cells?

A

50-500 µm

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14
Q

What are examples of animal Phyla?

A

Flatworms, Vertebretes, Sponges, Arthropods, Roundwarms, etc.

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15
Q

What are some plant Phyla?

A

Mosses, Conifers, Ferns, Green Algae, Flowering Plants, etc.

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16
Q

Which of the plant Phyla have swimming sperm?

A

Ferns and Moss.

17
Q

What are two types of plant classes?

A

Dicotelydons (branching veins) and Monotelydons (parallel veins).

18
Q

What is the evolution of the three domains?

A

First was the Archae, from which branched the Bacteria. Then, from the Archae, Eukarya began.