Lab Quiz 3 Flashcards

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1
Q

Which phase of the M-Phase lasts the longest?

A

Interphase.

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2
Q

What are the different phases of mitosis in order?

A

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.

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3
Q

What are the phases of the cell cycle in order? Briefly, what happens in each?

A

G1 (growth), G0 (function), S-Phase (DNA synthesis), G2 (Preparation for division), M-Phase (Reproduction), Cytokinesis (Cell division).
All are grouped into the Interphase except for the M-Phase and Cytokinesis.

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4
Q

What is the duplication of bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts called?

A

Binary fission.

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5
Q

During what phase does the centrosome duplicate?

A

Gap 2.

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6
Q

During what phase do the mitochondria and chloroplasts duplicate?

A

Gap 2.

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7
Q

What happens during prophase?

A

The nucleoli disappear, the nuclear membrane breaks down, centrosomes migrate to opposite poles, chromosomes start to become visible.

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8
Q

What are the stages of meiosis in order? Briefly describe each.

A

Prophase I: Homologous pairs form. Crossing Over occurs Metaphase I: Homologous pairs line up on metaphase plate. Anaphase I: Homologous pairs are pulled apart. Telophase I: Cells separate into haploid daughter cells.

Prophase II: Chromosomes condense. Metaphase II: Chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate. Anaphase II: Chromatids are pulled apart. Telophase II: 2 haploid cells divide into 4 haploid cells, nuclear membranes reform.

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9
Q

When does crossing over occur during meiosis?

A

During prophase I.

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10
Q

What happens during Metaphase in Mitosis?

A

In Mitosis, metaphase is when chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate.

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11
Q

What happens during Metaphase in Meiosis?

A

In Meiosis, metaphase I is where homologous pairs line up on the metaphase plate. Metaphase II is when sister chromatids line up on the metaphase plate.

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12
Q

What happens during Anaphase in Meiosis?

A

In Meiosis, anaphase I is when homologous pairs are pulled apart. Anaphase II is when sister chromatids are pulled apart.

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13
Q

What happens during Anaphase in Mitosis?

A

In Mitosis, anaphase is when the sister chromatids are pulled apart.

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14
Q

What happens during Telophase in Meiosis?

A

In Meiosis, telophase I is when 2 cells are formed from the first cell. Telophase II is when these 2 cells are further divided into 4 cells.

Both of these phases are marked by the reformation of the nucleus. Nucleoli also start to reappear, sometimes only in Telophase II though.

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15
Q

Describe the appearance of all of the M-Phases under the microscope.

A

Interphase: Nucleoli can be seen.

Prophase: Nucleus becomes darker, chromosomes can start to be seen.

Metaphase: Chromosomes are lined up at the center of the nucleus.

Anaphase: Chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles.

Telophase: 2 nuclei can be seen, the cell is about to divide.

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16
Q

What is the region where cells divide in the onion root cell called?

A

The meristem

17
Q

Why is DNA more susceptible to chemical damage during metaphase and anaphase?

A

Because the nuclear membrane has broken down.

18
Q

What could be seen in the fish blastodisc cell in metaphase that could not be seen in the onion root cell?

A

The aster, which are the spindle fibers connecting the centrosome to the plasma membrane.

19
Q

How many degrees of freedom are there if there are 4 possible options?

A

3 degrees of freedom.

20
Q

What are genotypes and phenotypes?

A

The Genotype represents the chromosomes or genetic material of a specimen.

The Phenotype is what can be observed. Ex. Red Eyes.

21
Q

What are the two eye colors for fruit flies?

On what gene does the eye color reside?

Which are the dominant and recessive genes?

A

Red and White.

On the X sex chromosome.

Xw for white eyes is recessive, while X+ for red eyes is dominant.

22
Q

If a male Drosphila has white eyes, what is his genotype?

If a male Drosphila has red eyes, what is his genotype?

A

XwY

X+Y

23
Q

What is the phenotype of a XwX+ Drosphila?

How would we describe this genotype in words?

A

A XwX+ Drosphila is a red eyed female.

Heterozygote.

24
Q

What is the proper name of the fruit fly?

A

Drosphila melanogaster

25
Q

What is the genotype of a white eyed female Drosophila?

How can this genotype be described in words?

A

XwXw

This is homozygote recessive.

26
Q

What is the critical probability value?

A

5% or 0.05

27
Q

What is the name of the hypothesis we made at the beginning of the lab.

Can it be prooved?

A

The null hypothesis.

It can only be rejected or not rejected, never prooved.

28
Q

How many autosomal and sex chromosomes do the fruit flies have?

A

3 pairs of autosomal and 1 pair of sex chromosomes.

29
Q

Analyze this population and give a hypothesis on the genotype of the parents. Explain.

All males have white eyes, all females have red eyes.

A

Female parent: XwXw

Male parent: X+Y

Since all females will have gotten the X+ from their father, and the red allele is dominant, all females will have red eyes.

In order for all males to have white eyes, they must all have gotten a Xw from their mother.

In this case, the mother is Homozygote recessive.

30
Q

What product was used to make the flies fall asleep?

A

Fly NapTM

31
Q

What type of microscope was used to observe the fruit flies?

A

A stereomicroscope.

32
Q

How are male Drosophila differentiated from females.

A

Size: Males are smaller than females.

Body Color: Men have a black posterior, while females are usually striped.

Shape: Men have a more rounded caudal tip to their abdomens than females.

Males have sex combs on front legs, females do not!

33
Q

What happens when the probability is 5%?

A

The null hypothesis is rejected.

34
Q

On which segment of the male Drosophila’s leg is the sex comb located?

A

Tarsi I.

35
Q

Approximately how long was the male Drosphila leg

A

1.25 mm

36
Q

What are the components of the Drossophila Larva?

Describe each briefly

A

Posterior Spiracles: end of trachea sticking out of the back

Trachea: Two long tubes that go from head to tail.

Mouth Parts: hooks where the mouth is.

Body Segments: 11 little lumps on the side of the larva.

Salivary Glands: Two big patches behind the mouth.