Unit 3 - Chemistry for Biology Flashcards

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1
Q

What is the structure of DNA?

What are the 4 nucleic acids in DNA?

A

The four nucleic acids in DNA are Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, and Cytosine.

These names represent the different nitrogenous inside the DNA strand. The backbone of the strand is made from the sugar and phosphate part of the nucleic acids.

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2
Q

What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?

A

Saturated fats contain only alkyl carbons, while unsaturated fats also have double bonds.

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3
Q

What is the name of this bond present in the fatty

acid - glycerol link?

A

Ester bond.

[R-C=O-O-R]

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4
Q

What are the monomer and polymer for the protein?

A

Monomer: Amino Acid

Polymer: Polypeptide

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5
Q

What are the 6 properties of water?

A

Adhesion, cohesion, high specific heat, high heat of vaporization, lower density of ice, solubility.

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6
Q

What is the Carbonyl group?

A

[R-C=O-R’]

Contrary to a ketone group, the R’ does not have to be a carbon based group.

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7
Q

Draw the structures of glucose, fructose, galactose.

A
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8
Q

What is cohesion, what is one benefit of water’s cohesion to life?

A

Water’s cohesion is caused by the ability for water molecules to attract one another. This allows for certain insects to walk on water.

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9
Q

What is high specific heat, what is one benefit of water’s high specific heat to life?

A

Hydrogen bonds take a lot of energy to break, and release a lot of energy when formed. This causes the high specific heat of water, which allows water to stabilize the temperature of organisms.

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10
Q

Identify this compound: [R-OH]

A

Hydroxil group

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11
Q

Identify this compound:

A

Carboxyl group

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12
Q

What is high heat of vaporization, what is one benefit of water’s high heat of vaporization to life?

A

Because of hydrogen bonding, it takes a lot of energy to convert liquid water into gas. This means that water’s evaporation has a cooling effect. One example is when we sweat.

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13
Q

What are the types of proteins?

A

Enzymes (lactase),

Transport(hemoglobin),

Structure (keratin),

Movement (actin),

Regulation (insulin),

Storage (albumin),

Cell Identity (Antibodies)

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14
Q

What is the bond between simple sugars?

A

Glycosidic bond

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15
Q

Which is the only macromolecule to not make polymers?

A

Lipids

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16
Q

How are proteins made from amino acids?

A

Amino acids are bonded together with peptide bonds by the ribosomes. When a polypeptide (multiple peptide bonds) chain is folded correctly, it becomes functional.

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17
Q

What is the structure of RNA and what are the 4 bases involved?

A

The four bases of RNA are Adenine, Guamine, Cytosine, and Uracil.

RNA’s backbone is made form the phosphate and sugar of the nucleic acids.

RNA is most often a single strand.

The four bases are adenine, uracil, guamine, and cytosine.

A&U bond together.

C&G bond together.

They bond through hydrogen bonding.

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18
Q

What are the types of nucleic acids? (3)

A

Gene: DNA

Gene expression: RNA

Energy transfer: ATP

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19
Q

What is the difference between a ribose and a deoxyribose?

A

Deoxyribose: DNA

Ribose: RNA

The difference between the two is the group placed on bottom left Carbon of the sugar.

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20
Q

By what type of reaction are polypeptides made?

A

Dehydration synthesis.

This occurs when water is formed as the amino acids link.

The bonds created are called peptide bonds.

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21
Q

What is the carboxyl group?

A

Also named carboxylic acid:

[R-C=O-OH]

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22
Q

What reaction takes place when multiple simple sugars are bonded together?

A

A dehydration synthesis. This creates a disaccharide or polysaccharide and water along with a glycosidic bond.

23
Q

What is solubility, what is one benefit of water’s solubility to life?

A

Water’s polarity makes it easy for polar compounds to dissolve in it. This allows many reactions to take place in cells.

24
Q

What acts as a buffer in our blood, and how does this work?

A

H2CO3 is the buffer present in our blood.

The following reaction is always taking place:

H2O + CO2 <=> H2CO3 <=> H+ + HCO3-

When there is too much CO2 in the blood, like during exercise, more H+ is produced, which triggers us to breath faster. When there is too much H+ in our blood, the reaction goes the other way, producing H2O and CO2.

25
Q

What is it called when a protein loses its shape, what does this do?

A

When proteins are no longer in the right shape, they are can no longer assume their proper functions. This is called a denaturation.

26
Q

What do we call 2 simple sugars put together?

More than 3 sugars?

Give examples for each.

A

2 simple sugars: disaccharides. Ex:

Sucrose: (glucose + fructose)

Maltose: (glucose + glucose)

Lactose: (glucose + galactose)

More than 3 simple sugars: polysaccharides. Ex:

Starch: (3+ glucose)

27
Q

What are the three simple 6-carbon sugars, what is the relationship betwen them and their empirical formula?

A

The three simple sugars are glucose, fructose, and galactose. They are different isomers with the same formula: [C6H12O6]

28
Q

What is the structural formula of a fatty acid?

A

A fatty acid is a carboxilic group attached to an alkyl chain. In the human body, each fatty acid is about 20 Carbons long.

29
Q

What is the structure of a phospholipid?

A

A phospho lipid is like a triglyceride, but instead, only has 2 fatty acids and the third O of the glycerol instead bonds with a phosphate up top.

30
Q

What are the monomer and polymer for nucleic acids?

A

Monomer: Nucleotide

Polymer: DNA Strand

31
Q

What is the opposite of a dehydration synthesis reaction?

A

A hydrolisis reaction.

This reaction involves a H2O molecule breaking down a polymer.

32
Q

What are the differences between DNA and RNA?

A

Sugars: Deoxyribose for DNA, Ribose for RNA.

Bases: ATGC for DNA, AUGC for RNA.

Structure: Double helix for DNA, single strand for RNA.

Location:

DNA: Mitochondria, Nucleus, Chloroplast.

RNA: Nucleus, Cytoplasm

DNA: Gene. RNA: Gene expression.

33
Q

What is a triglyceride and what does it look like?

A

Glycerol is a 3-carbon chain with a hydroxil group attached to each one.

A triglyceride forms when 3 fatty acids bond to the glyceride by dehydration synthesis.

34
Q

What is adhesion, what is one benefit of water’s adhesion to life?

A

Water’s adhesion means that it is very attracted to things, and therefore stick to them. This allows for water to move against gravity, like when it flows up plants and trees. This is essential to life.

35
Q

What is the structure of a nucleic acid?

A

This is a ribose nucleic acid, found in RNA

36
Q

What is the sulfhydryl group?

A

Sulfhydryl groups are present in thiols: [R-SH]

37
Q

What is a hydroxil group?

A

[R-OH]

38
Q

What are the types of carbohydrates?

Give one example for each.

A

Plant cell wall: cellulose

Plant energy storage: starch

Animal/fungi support: chitin

Animal energy storage: glycogen

39
Q

Identify this compound

A

Amino Acid

40
Q

What is the structure of ATP?

What does ATP mean?

A

ATP consists of a 5-carbon sugar connected to a Nitrogenous base on the right and to a triphosphate on the left.

41
Q

What is the phosphate group?

A

[PO4]3-

42
Q

What is cholesterol and what is its structure?

A

Cholesterol is a steroid, a type of lipid.

In general, steroid hormones look like chains of 3 benzene rings attached together and a pantene ring at the end.

This is cholesterol

43
Q

What is lower density of ice, what is one benefit of the lower density of frozen water for life?

A

Because of hydrogen bonding, water molecules are more spaced out when frozen. This allows ice to float, and for bodies of water not to freeze completely in the winter. This is essential to the survival of underwater species.

44
Q

What are the steps from DNA to protein?

A

DNA is transcribed into RNA in the nucleus.

RNA is translated to the ribosomes that create polypeptides.

The polypeptide is shaped into its protein in the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

or

The polypeptide is shapes itself in the cytoplasm.

45
Q

Identify this compound:

A

Sulfhydryl group

46
Q

What is the difference between alpha and beta glucose?

A

Alpha glucose has its hydroxil group next to the O facing down, whild beta glucose has that hydroxil group facing up.

47
Q

What is an amino acid?

A

The R can represent 20 different things. (There are 20 different amino acids)

48
Q

What are the monomer and polymer for the carbohydrate?

A

Monomer: Monosaccharide (3 simple sugars)

Polymer: Polysaccharide (many simple sugars stuck together ex. starch)

49
Q

What is the difference betweenn cis and trans fats?

A

They differ on the orientation of the Hydrogen atoms bonded to the C’s of the double bonds in unsaturated fats.

50
Q

What is glycogen and how is it similar to starch?

A

Glycogen is a carbohydrate synthesized by insulin in our bodies from the excess sugar. These carbohydrates are kept in the liver and in our muscles for approximately 3 hours.

51
Q

Identify this compound.

A

Carbonyl group

52
Q

What are the three types of chemical bonds from weakest to strongest?

A

Weakest: hydrogen bonding, covalent bonds, ionic bonds: Strongest.

53
Q

What is a buffer?

A

A solution that can resist pH change. It does so by neutralizing H+ and OH- in solution, effectively increasing the amount of these ions needed to affect pH.