Unit 3 Flashcards Preview

Health Science > Unit 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 3 Deck (259):
1

percent of the adults smokers in 2013

18% national
21.9% indiana
numbers came from the centers for disease control

2

smoking is

the chief preventable cause of death in the US
nearly everyone knows smoking is harmful

3

why do 20% of US adults smoke?

social acceptability
ignorance
advertising
relaxation
handling instruments (having something to do with their hands)
oral gratification
decreases tension, anxiety, anger
weight control
family/friends smoke
stimulation and increased energy
habit
does not impair performance like other drugs
harmful effects then not to occur until it has been used for years

4

#1 reason people smoke cigarettes

nicotine is an addictive drug
not all smokers become addicted
nicotine addiction= very powerful
affects 80-90% of smokers

5

how nicotine causes addiction

strong sensation of pleasure
lack of it causes discomfort (withdrawal)
stimulation craving long after withdrawal
symptoms disappear

6

major components of tobacco

nicotine
carbon monoxide
tar

7

nicotine

*psychoactive drug
can cause physical dependence
stimulant and depressant properties
takes 7.5 seconds to reach the brain
*does what the smoker needs- a stimulant and depressant
helps with simple repetitive tasks

8

carbon monoxide

*most abundant gas in tobacco smoke
oxygen displacer- interfere with blood's ability to carry oxygen
*smokers are "out of breath"

9

Tar

sticky, dark mixture
total of all solid material that is inhaled
irritate the respiratory tract (smokers cough)

10

Surgeon General's Report (1964)

increases overall mortality among men
causes lung cancer
causes chronic bronchites
smoking= habitually (not additive)

11

surgeon General's report (1989)

increases mortality and morbidity in men and women
casual association between many diseases
smoking=addiction

12

master settlement agreement (1999)

class action suit filed by all 50 states
recoup Medicaid $ for tobacco related costs
tobacco industry pay $246 billion
use $ for cessation and prevention efforts

13

cigarette smoking increases risk

heart disease
cancer
lung diseases
After you stop your body can restore itself

14

amount of deaths related to smoking in the US

1 in 5

15

lung cancer

risk= proportional to smoking amount and duration
rare in nonsmokers
former smokers reduce risk of lung cancer significantly (vs. when they were smoking)

16

effects on nonsmokers

involuntary/passive smoking
mainstream smoke
side stream smoke

17

involuntary/passive smoking

inhalation of air containing tobacco smoke by nonsmokers

18

mainstream smoke

smoke inhaled and then exhaled by smoker

19

sidestream smoke

smoke from burning end of a cigarette, pipe, or cigar

20

environmental tobacco smoke

tobacco smoke, regardless of its source, that stays within a common source of air

21

health concerns- passive/involuntary smoking

side stream smoke=85% of harmful substances
not filtered; more CO, CO2 and nicotine
some experts- smokers and nonsmokers exposed to same smoke
insufficient ventilation
eye irritation, nasal systems, headaches, cough, dislike oder

22

smoking regulations

restructions/bans
u.s. airline industry
children= increased risk for bronchitis, pneumonia, coughing, ear infections
partners/roommates= increased risk for heart attacks, cancer

23

e-cigarettes

no tobacco or smoke
synthetic nicotine- higher than cigarettes
sold to children
FDA= potentially harmful- not sure
banned on airplanes

24

nicotine withdrawal

symptoms=anxiety, irritability, anger, increased appetite, urges to smoke
W/D peaks 1st 1-2 days
longterm abstinence= enhanced self-esteem and increased sense of control

25

what american president was asked in the early 1960's if smoking was safe

John F. Kennedy

26

anti-smoking announcements started airing in 1962. describe one example of an anti-smoking public service announcement.

2 children imitating their parents- realize smoking works the same way

27

Luther Terry, MD, Surgeon General, released the first government report on smoking and health in 1964. why was it such an important event?

it was the first time smoking was said to have a dramatic effect on health- hit tobacco companies hard- started center studies by Tobacco company

28

the "fairness doctrine" was the legal principle or catalyst used to get cigarette advertising off television. it means that if a station broadcasts one side of controversial issue of public importance, the station must provide some time, not necessarily equal time, of the opposing view. this happened in june 1967, did the committee spend a lot of time discussing the proposal?

no, decision made during a coffee break

29

what was the result of the "fairness doctrine" decision? what did television stations have to air

people had to airing-smoking ads they aired at night after everyone is asleep then they said every 3 tobacco ads an anti ad had to be aired in the same time period

30

the battle was between broadcasters and cigarette advertisers- who wanted cigarette ads to continue and who wanted them to stop?

broadcasters wanted to continue and cigarette advertisers wanted out because they were losing too much money, too hostile an environment- voluntarily withdraw

31

they 1969 cigarette act banned cigarette ads on january 2, 1971. congress left the tobacco industry alone until 1984 and they were asked to

strengthen warning labels- asked to ban all tobacco ads

32

stoping smoking requires

knowledge, recognition, familiarity, belief, certainty

33

quitting

most want to quit= 80% at on time
cessation programs= 75% failure rate

34

cessation techniques and programs

past 90% of former smokers report they quit on there own
now combination of nicotine replacement and anti depressant meds
other factors increased cigarette taxes and social support- friends, family, co-workers, health car provider
-nicotine fading
-adverse techniques (things that make negative association)
-hypnosis and acupuncture
-relaxation training
-contigency contracting
-nicotine-containing products
-cessation aids (medications/candy/gum)
-church- based programs
-voluntary health agency programs

35

young adults (18-234) likely ways of dying

chances of dying now-relativly low
more likely to die of an injury
injuries=leading cause of death
injuries= 5th leading cause of death among all age groups
cause pain and suffering= victim and friends/family

36

geting real about preventing deaths

risk=behavior and environment
cannot eliminate all injuries
individuals and society= take steps to reduce # and seriousness of injury

37

death by the numbers

75% of deaths among americans 14-24 caused by unintentional injuries, homicides, and suicides
motor vehicle crashes kill more college age persons than all others combined

38

Why do accidents happen?

age/developmental phase
alcohol/other psychoactive drugs
stress
situational factors
thrill seeking

39

accident causes- age/developmental phase

leading cause of death among young people- more willing to take risks
fatal accident victims= often males in teens and 20s
some believe they are invulnerable

40

accident causes- alcohol/other psychoactive drugs

40% involved in an alcohol- related accident in lifetime
alcohol=25% of fatal motor vehicle accidents and half of fatal motorcycle crashed

41

accident causes- stress

tense and anxious= we pay less attention
series of mishaps and near misses, then to your lower your stress level
distracted=hard to focus

42

accident causes- situational factors

road conditions, car maintenance
weather conditions
unlocked doors
lack of lighting
lower risk when possible

43

injury definition

caused by the transfer of energy to tissue; results form exposure for energy:
thermal, mechanical (i.g. a gun), electrical, chemical

44

intentional injuries

injuries that are purposely committed by a person

45

unintentional injuries

injuries that have occurred without anyone intending that had be done
(car crashes, residential injures, recreational injuries)

46

factors contributing to motor vehicle accidents

-distracted driving
-impaired driving
-speeding
-vehicle safety issues
-driver age

47

safety at home

poisoning, falls, fire

48

injuries

understandable, predictable, preventable, not an accident
course following unplanned events
preceded by an unsafe act or condition
accompanied by economic loss
interrupt efficient completion of tasks

49

3 Es of injury prevention

education, enforcement, engineering,

50

education (injury prevention)

involve the community, not just children or adults
empower
diversity (education and socioeconomic level)

51

enforcement (injury prevention)

advocate for stricter laws
consistent enforcement of current laws

52

engineering (injury prevention)

new safety devices
environment changes- i.e. "complete streets"`

53

injury prevention strategies

primary prevention
-prevent injury by removing the hazards or making it inaccessible so that the injury never occurs
secondary prevention
-reducing injury severity (i.e. using proper first aid)
tertiary prevention
-improving injury outcome after the injury occurs

54

active vs. passive prevention

active
-individuals must do something to prevent themselves
passive
-individual is automatically protected (airbags)

55

opposition to enhancing safety laws

government interfering w/individual rights
insignificant # of deaths or injuries
opposition to age criteria
difficulty or unwillingness to enforce laws
public education instead of passing laws

56

how old is old

nos data= elderly or seniors are 65+
"young-old" 55-75
"old-old" 75+
75-85- the elderly
85+ the very old or oldest old

57

gerontology

study of aging

58

chronological age

legal reasons
set by arbitrary governmental/legal standards

59

functional age

determined by individual attributes
not consistent with chronological age
varies with environment

60

aging is

developmental
a gift of 20th century science and technology
without a universally accepted theory

61

biological aging

changes in physical appearance
some physical capabilities diminish

62

pathological aging

result of disease

63

age related physiological changes- the skin

wrinkles
loss of fat. padding=temperature regulation
graying/loss of hair

64

age related physiological changes- skeleton and muscles

osteoporosis= loss of bone mass and height, increased risk of fractures
arthritis
decreased in muscle mass

65

age related physiological changes- the senses

impaired hearing/ vision
slower reaction time
no major declines in learning/ memory

66

age related physiological changes- cardiovascular system

decreased in heart muscle strength and cardiac output
blood pressure increases with age

67

three types of age bias

age restrictiveness
ageism
age distortion

68

age restrictiveness

set limits on someone else's behavior based of your expectations
"act your age"

69

ageism

holding a negative attitude towards aging ant the age
can appeal to any age group

70

age distortion

distorting your perceptions based on your exception
atribute being forgetful to age

71

research on aging attitudes

by 5 or 6 children already have negative attitude regarding aging
age group with least negative attitudes towards aging-adolescents

72

demographics

1900-1 in 25 were 65+ (4%)
200- 1 in 8 were 65+ (12%)
2030- 1 in 5 will be 65+ (20 %)

73

aging population key issues

retirement costs
health care costs
politics
anti-aging gimmicks

74

seniors 65+ Years

use 29% of all money spent on medical care
see a physician 8 times a year general population only sees them 5 times

75

Keys to living long and well

exercise regularly
hobbies
reach out to others
move-get off the couch
manage health conditions
mingle= engaged with family, friends, and community

76

thanatology

study of death and dying

77

mortality: past vs. present

increased life expectancy
past vs. present cause of death infection vs. chronic diseases
concentration of death among elderly
illusion of control over death
we fell it is unjust if you die before a certain age

78

how we learn about death

1st= physical/ concrete; older= abstract concepts
move through stages @ different rates
sequence rather than age is important
predictable stages

79

learning about death stage one (less than age 3)

had to study- limited verbal skills
may experience feelings of grief, even if they can't express it

80

learning about death stage two (age 3-5)

time- view death as temporary
egocentrism- may disregard death
animism- don't understand full meaning of death (don't understand what is living and what isn't)
magical thinking= see death as reversible and avoidable

81

learning about death stage three (age 6-8)

major transition
beginning= death is final and inevitable
end=death is personal
lots of questions

82

learning about death stage four (age 9 and over)

age 9-10= adult like understanding of death
need help dealing with emotions
final, inevitable, personal
abstract ideals "lie on in our memories"

83

bereavement

state of having sustained a loss

84

grief

reaction to the loss
emotional feelings that people experience after the death of a friend/ relative
ex; preoccupation with the image of the deceased, guilt, disruption in daily schedule delayed grief is a typical reaction

85

mourning

culturally patterned manner by which grief is managed

86

stages of dying (cobbler-ross 1969)

emotional reaction of dying people
each person is unique= some may skip stages or revisit some stages
family and friends may go through similar stages
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

87

denial

disbelief
refuse to believe that they will die
temporary defence mechanism

88

anger

feel they have "been cheated"
"not fair"
patient can vent fears and frustrations and anxieties
may direct anger at relatives, friends and physicians

89

bargaining

strike bargains with God or a church leader
some have religious conversions
"buy time"

90

depression

grieving for their own death
withdraw from family and friends
periods of silence/crying

91

acceptance

fully realize they are going to die
sense of peace
void of feeling
calm-introspective
may prefer to be left alone or with family and friends

92

hospice care

terminally ill patients and family
return to the experience of death at home
primary goal= control of pain and death with dignity

93

what does death look like

decrease in food and fluid intake
changes in breathing patterns
skin cools
moaning
decreased orientation
restlessness

94

dealing with death

part of the human experience
life skill
each person is unique

95

informed consumers

makes good decisions
seeks trustworthy sources of info
des not accept everything as truth
selects products/services with care
speakers out end fraud is identified

96

keys to wise shopping

decide what you need, make a list
set and follow a budget
comparison shop
consider store brands and coupons
be aware of advertisement and impulse shopping

97

before buying, consider const and

why- needs vs. wants
what- quality vs. quantity
when- now vs. later
where- type of store, location
how- cash vs. credit

98

budgeting

plan- guidelines for use of money
list expenses and income
obligations and responsibilities, needs and wants, personal priorities
easier to save, use money for things you truly want, "rainy day" fund
get bank account and debit card= learn how to use and balance your account
plan ahead for future expenses (both long term and short tern)
avoid buying on credit
make your money work for you

99

income

ID income sources
ID regular and sporadic
calculate average income/ week or month

100

expenses

1. ID your expenses
2. essential and optional
3. consistent vs. variable
4. estimate average spent/week or month

101

compare income to expenses

determine whether to cut back, how much to save, if you need to earn more money, etc.

102

financial "orientation"

spenders, savers, sharers
we all have a primary, secondary, minor some may favor 2 of the 3 or have a good balance
spenders- live well, but may send more than they have
savers- have money for later, but do not allow themselves to live
shares- help others out, but may be taken advantage of

103

money

is finite/limited resources (for most of us)
avoid deprivation and waste
goals- short term and long term
health care costs= increasing
healthy=wealthy

104

why do we see health care providers

diagnosis, treatment, screening, consultation, prevention

105

informed self care

3 main skills
-observe and assess
-seek professional advice vs. self- treat
-safely self-treat
know your:
previous history
nature of symptoms

106

symptoms

our body letting us know something is wrong

107

benefits of self care

reduce health care costs
provide effective care for particular conditions
free physicians to spend time with others
increase interest in health related activities

108

knowing when to visit your physician

2 types of mistakes
-rush to doctor
-avoid seeking medical care
see one if symptoms are:
severe, unusual, persistant, recurrent

109

overall

informed consumer
communication with health care professionals (physicians, pharmacist, nurse)

110

over the counter drug

considered relatively safe
temporary use
relieve minor symptoms

111

prescription drugs

physician supervision
more powerful
adverse side affects
dispensed by pharmacists

112

drug regulation laws

federal food, drug, and cosmetic act 1939- provide safety of medication
durham-humphrey amendment 1951-criteria for OTC and Rx drugs
-OTC
-must be non habit forming
-no harmful side effects when used according to directions
-did not require professional expertise to be used
kefaurer-harris amendment 1962- required both safety and effectiveness before a drug could be marketed; required specific info on drug labels
orphan drug law- financial incentives for drugs for rare diseases
Rx drug user free act 1992- decreases drug approval time= charge money for additional reviewers
dietary supplement health and education act 1994- regulated by FDA as a food; sold in US before 1994, assumed to be safe new (after 1994) must prove safety
-results- no pre marketing evidence of safety and effectiveness, more money spent on supplements, some say more regulation is needed

113

drug approval process- U.S

preclinical R and D, phase1, phase 2, phase 3, and phase 4

114

preclinical R and D

research and development (R and D)
exception= terminal illness/orphan drugs
ID compound= curative/preventative potential
conduct initial studies
submit investigational new drug (IND) application to FDA

115

phase 1

initial clinical stage
human experimental trials=determine effectiveness of compound
healthy counter subjects

116

phase 2

clinical pharmacological evolution stage
small # of people (100-300)
have conditions possibly treatable by compound
free from complicating conditions(only have that problem)

117

phase 3

extended clinical evaluation stage
-greatly expanded versions of phase 2
studies thousands of people
phase 1-3 may last 2-10 years
on completion of stage 3:
-submit new drug applicant (NDA) to FDA
reviews applicant in 180 days
approve or reject

118

phase 4

post marketing surveillance
clinicians report patient experiences with the drug to the FDA
FDA monitors clinical reports of long-term complicaitons

119

drug patents

17 years***
decrease approval process time= charge $ for additional reviewers
7 years development
10 years patent protected sales

120

drug names

brand names= registered name/trademark
generic name= biological/chemical name
consumer save $ with a generic drug

121

compliance

patient's willingness was ability to take medicament in the prescribed manner

122

intentional noncompliance

willful failure to follow physicians directions

123

unintentional noncompliance

patient discontinues or alters medication use

124

placebo effect

ability of inert materials to preform as if they were medically active

125

what percentage of ball state students have never used alcohol

11-20%; perceived use is that 2.4% of students are not using

126

why do people tend to think that more are using alcohol than actually are?

reputation of the college
more prevalent- you see it at parties

127

average # of drinks BSU students report drinking

6-7 (females 4-5; males 8)

128

men vs. women

men naturally drink more
b/c of social expectations that men should drink more and maybe because females fear getting too drunk because they have to walk back
self-report- men could be more willing to admit how much they have drunk
majority say that they drink 8 or fewer

129

standard sizes of drinks

1.5 hard liquor
12 oz beer
6 oz wine

130

what students report happening when they drink

forgot where they were/what they did
did something that they regret
unprotected sex
physically injured self
injured others

131

ways to be responsible when drinking

alternate non alcoholic beverages with alcoholic ones
eat before and or during drinking. determine set # before hand, pace drinks to one or fewer an hour, use designated drivers

132

physical effects of alcohol

BAC- biphasic curve- optimal BAC betwween .05 and .06
figure out how many drinks per hour that means for you
there is an app to calculate your approximate BAC
***drinking more does not help you feel better, too much makes you feel worse

133

systems affected by drinking

digestive, cardio vascular, skeletal and muscular, immune, nervous, kidneys

134

effects of alcohol on the brain

cerebral cortex- poor judgement, lowered inhibitions, blunted senses
limbic system- memory loss and exaggerated emotions
cerebellum- coordination, reflexes
hypothalamus and pituitary gland- sexual desire and arousal (increased desire, but decreased performance ability)
medulla- automatic functions, increased drowsiness

135

long-term effects of drinking

liver damage, increased risk of cancer,
korsakoff's syndrome-
-thiamine deficiency, anterograde and retrograde amnesia, most likely to affect episodic memories, confabulation- invented memories taken as true in spot of memories that are lost, meager content in conversation, lack of insight, apathy, aren't aware of the symptoms

136

alcohol poisoning

vomit, lured speech, mental confusion, stupor, coma, shallow/ short breath, black out, pale, clammy bluish skin, seizers, does not respond to pinch or poke, hypothermia

137

what to do if someone has alcohol poisoning

roll on side (bacchus maneuver), try to wake up, continue to monitor, cover only with a sheet, do not give cold shower, do not give food or drink, call 911
don't forget about the life line law and good neighbor policy through Ball State

138

% crashes caused by drunk driving

31%

139

# 1 threat to children

school shootings

140

drug use according to Dr. turner

downward trend in last 30 years (can fluctuate with gas prices)
can die on an overdose
drugs attach to fat instead of water like alcohol, so it could be present in the brain where there is a lot of fatty tissue, but not show up in the blood
depressants don't allow your eyes to keep up with a finger
some drugs don't let you cross eyes
others don't let your eyes dilate right

141

why are drunks dangerous

lowers inhibition and increased risk taking
slow perception to reaction time
impairs ability to divide attention
alcohol allows you to be stupid
can't control both speed and lane control at once
you make a quarter million decisions on a trip to the store, but you can't do all this multitasking when drunk

142

adult reaction time

1 sec to 1.5 sec

143

alcohol use according to Dr. Turner

you get stuck at the age that you start drinking
96X less likely to have a drinking problem if you start drinking after 21
originally used as an antiseptic and a food

144

making alcohol

since 10,000 BC
fermentation
-unsure of first discovery
-yeast, sugar source
distillation
boille fermented beverage
throughout world
proof to percent
as yeast eats sugar, yeast wast is alcohol 12-14% naturally occurs

145

absorption of alcohol in the stomach

getting the ethanol out of the stomach and into the blood
-20% absorbed in stomach
chime in the stomach
-45-2h
80% absorbed past pylorus
get drunk faster on an empty stomach
when you drink past what your brain can handle, your pylorus shuts off and you puke

146

what is a drug

anything on controlled substance act
schedule 1- no medical use, high abuse (marijuana not considered to have a medical use)
schedule 2- medical use, but addictive
schedule 3
schedule 4- over the counter
schedule 5- you can get
*any substance which, when taken into the human body, can impair the ability of a person to properly operate a motor vehicle
drugs do not cause your body to do anything that it couldn't do on it's own, just enhanced those factors

147

12 step process for police testing someone suspected to be on drugs

breath test
interview of officer
preliminary exam, 1st pulse
eye examination
divided attention test (balance)
vital signs, second pulse
dark room exam (pupil sizes)
muscle tone, 3rd pulse
injection sites
suspect statements
opinion of evaluator
toxicology verification
*trying to rule out medical conditions, alcohol, the drugs
94-94% correct identification rate

148

depressants

drunken behavior and appearance, uncoordinated

149

stimulants

in constant movement, restless, talkative, euphoria, redness to nasal area, runny nose, body tremors
ex. cocaine, amphetamines

150

methamphetamine

extremely addictive

151

hallucinogens

confuse the senses
ex. LSD, MDMA, MDA
naturally occurring too
"seeing sounds, hearing colors"

152

dissociative anesthetics

delusions- think you are something that you're not
"super strength"
blake stare, drooling, naked, warm to touch

153

narcotic analgesics

codine, morphine
on the nod
droopy eyelids
depressed reflexes
dry mouth
low raspy speech

154

inhalants

aerosols
shutting off oxygen to brain
severe headaches
slurred speech, disorientation, confusion

155

4 gateway drugs

marijuana, tobacco, alcohol, inhalants

156

cannabis

marijuana marinol (medical marijuana)
interferes with short and long term memory
emotional addictions
different than alcohol
edibles are dangerous, because it takes so much longer to start feeling the effects so people eat more
marijuana is #2 cause of ER visits (#1 is cocaine)
very blood shot eyes

157

poly drug use

using drugs at the same time, use1 drug to increase effects of the other drug

158

cancer

disease group characterized by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells
lage portion is preventable (like ones caused by tobacco use)
formed from stem cells that grow wrong
don't stop growing

159

metastasis

cells that travel to another region often form tumors are removed from the original tumor called this

160

damaged DNA

cancer develops when DNA is damaged
normal cels die or become repaired if DNA is damaged
cancer cells with damaged DNA
caused by inheritance, environment, or lifestyle choices

161

DNA repair genes

involved in fixing damaged DNA. cells with mutations in these genes tend to develop additional mutations in other genes. Together, these mutations may cause the cells to become cancerous

162

cancer classifications

cancers are classified in two ways: by the type of tissue in which the cancer originates (histological type) and by primary site, or the location in the body where the cancer first develops

163

carinoma

malignancy of epithelial origin o the internal or external lining of the body. most common type of cancer accounting for 80-90% of cases

164

Sarcoma

malignancy originating in supporting or connective tissue (bone, cartilage, tendons, muscle and fat.

165

Myeloma

malignancy originating in the plasma cells of the bone marrow

166

Leukemia

malignancy of the bone marrow.

167

Lymphoma

malignancy that develops in the glands or nodes of the lymphatic system.

168

Stage 0

Carcinoma in situ

169

Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III

Higher numbers indicate more extensive disease: Larger tumor size and/or spread of the cancer beyond the organ in which it first developed to nearby lymph nodes and/or tissues or organs adjacent to the location of the primary tumor

170

Stage IV

The cancer has spread to distant tissues or organs

171

treatment for cancer

Surgery
Chemotherapy
Hormone Therapy
Radiation Therapy
Targeted Therapy
Clinical Trials

172

surgery

only definitive way to know is to see an actual cell

173

chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is the use of medicines or drugs to treat a disease, such as cancer. Many times this treatment is just called chemo. Surgery and radiation therapy remove, kill, or damage cancer cells in a certain area, but chemo can work throughout the whole body. Chemo can kill cancer cells that have metastasized or spread to parts of the body far away from the primary (original) tumor.
Chemotherapy also affects normal cells of the bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, hair follicles and some reproductive organ cells.
side effects:
Bone Marrow Suppression
Gastrointestinal Tract
Hair Follicles
Fertility
Mouth sores
#1 is fatigue

174

can cancer be prevented?

All cancers caused by tobacco use and heavy alcohol consumption could be prevented completely.
physical inactivity, and/or poor nutrition, and thus could also be prevented
Certain cancers are related to infectious agents

175

cancer an genetics

Sometimes, certain types of cancer seem to run in some families.
hereditary cancer:
not common
mutation is inherited and found in all cells

176

prevention of cancer

Maintain a desirable body wt.
Eat a healthy diet
Include fruit, vegetables, grains
Eat HIGH fiber foods
Limit alcohol – Do NOT smoke or use tobacco products
Limit salt cured, smoked, & nitrite preserved foods
Exercise 5 times/week

177

STI

over 1/2 of the cases of STI are in people 15-24
can lead to disease and cancer

178

3 most common STIs

genital warts (HPV)
chlamydia
genital herpes
*at BSU chlamydia

179

average sexual partners in a year at Ball State

males-3 females-2

180

If you do NOT use a method of contraception, what is your your chance of getting pregnant during one year of sexual intercourse?

85%

181

contraceptives

not the same as protecting against STIs
smoking could affect it

182

hormonal contraceptives

may increase risk of cancer

183

patch

increase risk of blood clots

184

estrogen

increases occurrence of breast cancer

185

epidemic

a highly significant increase in the number of cases of an infectious illness existing within the same time period in a given geographical area

186

pandemic

an epidemic that has crossed national boundaries, thus achieving regional or international status

187

pathogen

a disease-causeing agent

188

agent

the casual pathogen of a particular disease

189

virulent

capable of causing disease

190

cell-mediated immunity

immunity provided principally by the immune system's T cells, both working alone and in combination with highly specialized B cells

191

humoral immunity

immunity responsible for the production of critically important immune system elements know as antibodies

192

acquired immunity

a form of immunity resulting form exposure to foreign protein

193

naturally acquired immunity

a form of immunity resulting from the body's response to naturally occurring pathogens

194

artificially acquired immunity

a type of acquired immunity resulting f form the body's response to pathogens introduced into the body through immunizations

195

passively acquired immunity

a temporary immunity achieved by providing antibodies to a person exposed to a particular pathogen

196

antibodies

chemical compounds produced by the body's immune system to destroy antigens and their toxins

197

acute rhinitis

the common cold; the sudden onset of nasal inflammation

198

mononucleosis

"mono" a viral infection characterized by weakness, fatigue, swollen glands, sore throat, and low-grade fever

199

chronic fatigue syndrome

an illness that causes severe exhaustion, fatigue, aches and depression; mostly affects women in their 40's and 50's

200

lyme disease

a bacterial infection transmitted by deer ticks

201

withdrawal

an act of contraception in which the erect penis is removed from the vagina before ejaculation

202

diaphram

a soft rubber cup designed to cover the cervix

203

intrauterine device

a small, plastic. medicated or unmedicated contraceptive device that prevents pregnancy when inserted into the uterus

204

contraindications

factors that make the use of a drug inappropriate or dangerous for a particular person

205

ectopic pregnancy

a pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum implants at a site other than the users, typically in the fallopian tubes

206

allopathy

a system of medical practice in which specific remedies (often pharmaceutical agents) are used to produce effects different form those produced by a disease or injury

207

osteopathy

a system of medical practice in which allopathic principles are combined with specific attention to postural mechanics of the body

208

homeopathy

the use of minute doses of herbs, minerals, or other substances to stimulate healing

209

naturopathy

a system of treatment that avoids drugs and surgery and emphasizes the use of natural agents, such as sunshine. to correct underlying imbalances

210

herbalism

an ancient form of healing in which herbal preparations are used to treat illness and disease

211

decision making and sexuality

choices vs. circumstances beyond our control
short term and long term impact
regrets vs. lost opportunities= progress and move on
your choice of partner= impacts your life
impacts all dimensions of health

212

how do researchers learn about sexuality

surveys and questionnaires
-people may not be truthful, but may report the average
observation
-observing in a lab
experimental manipulation
-same as observe, but you add stimulus

213

dimensions of human sexuality

biological
social
psychological
moral

214

biological

reproduction
contraception
pregnancy
sexual response *know the 4 stages in the book
growth and development

215

social

history
dating
marriage
legality
advertising
relationships

216

psychological

learned behavior
attitudes
education
expression

217

moral

behavior
religion
ethics- right or wrong?
feelings
yes or no

218

intimacy

state of closeness between people characterized by the desire and ability to share one's most inner most feelings with each other

219

jo-hari window

has for sections
labeled me- do know/ don't know
and others do know and don't know
feedback from others help increase what you know about your unknown self

220

zones of space

social distance- 4-7 feet- respectful distance
personal distance- 1-4 feet- shows you are a group without excluding others
intimate distance- a foot or less- shows people that you are together- tends to exclude everyone else

221

dating patterns

preadolescence- "girl or boy germs"
early adolescence- more interaction
middle adolescence- mixed groups (males and females)
late adolescence- individual dating

222

functions of dating

achieving status
learn more about other people
learn more about your own personality and needs
evaluation relationships
clarify values
experiment with sexual behavior

223

3 components of love

attachment- physical, emotional
caring
intimacy

224

2 kinds of love

passionate-romantic love (the immediate infatuation)
companionate love (more like long term friendship)

225

immature vs. mature love

mature- positive, happy feelings associated with it
immature- you feel like you are in a controlling relationship, not really happy
is it helping you feel happier and be a better person

226

stern berg's love triangle

make 8 different types of relationships
intimacy, passion, commitment

227

non-love

absence of intimacy, passion, or commitment

228

liking

intimacy

229

empty love

commitment

230

infatuation

passion

231

fatuous love

passion and commitment "Hollywood love"
may not know them very well-rush in to it

232

companionate love

intimacy and commitment (best friend)

233

romantic love

intimacy and passion

234

consummate love

intimacy and passion and commitment

235

traditional marriage

husband- more dominant
traditional gender roles
do not share interest/activities
husband= ultimate authority
wife= housework/children

236

modern marriage

husbands are less dominant
couple states they are equal, but has places where they tend to be more powerful
modified traditional gender roles
stress compatibility and spend time together

237

egalitarian marriage

both partners power equality
best seen as an ideal
highest levels of marital satisfaction

238

conflict-habituated marriage

tension and verbal battles
keep couple together
freedom to express resentment
come together in crisis

239

devitalized marriage

opposite of conflict-habitual marriage
after marriage is well- established
romance had faded
tolerant acceptance of spouse
"habit cage"- binding terms of marriage contract

240

4 stages of sexual response

excitement, plateau, orgasmic, resolution

241

excitement stage

initial arousal stage of the sexual response pattern

242

plateau stage

second stage of the sexual response patter; a leveling off of arousal immediately before orgasm

243

orgasmic stage

third stage of the sexual response pattern; the stage during which neuromuscular tension is released

244

resolution stage

fourth stage of the sexual response pattern; the return of the body to a pre excitement state

245

passive-congnial

common internship hold marriage together
begin with premise that marriage is going to be unexciting
peace and orderliness is emphasized
prees couple to pursue interests

246

vital marriage

dedicated to work and children
excitement= shared experiences
prefer to do things together
disagreement= over substantial issues not brought up again

247

total marriage

complete meshing of personalities and interest
shared experiences out numbered separate ones
conflicts settled as they arise
mutual supportiveness

248

successful marriage/long-term relationship

ability to change
ability to live with the unchangeable
assumption of permanence
trust
balance of dependence
enjoyment of each other
shared history that is cherished
luck

249

10 most important things in a long term relationship

love
laughter
talk
involvement
friendships
integrity
tolerance
adaption
sex
sharing

250

issues of fertility

sex drive=powerful
communication= very important
discuss contraception with partner
use contraception= more reasonable
85% of women will be pregnant in 1 year with no contraception

251

fertility

ability to reproduce

252

birth control

prevents the birth of a child

253

contraception

prevents fertilization
effectiveness
-theoretical- used correctly overtype (lager %)
-use= used by general public (smaller %)

254

12 month pregnancy

idea every pregnancy is planned/ wanted there is preparation
-pre conceptional/prenatal care
-planned pregnancy= optimal health for mother an baby

255

teratogen

any substance which causes harm to unborn baby
-alcohol, tobacco, other drugs
4 factors
-timing (1st trimester is most critical for growth)
-dosage; more= more harm
substance

256

signs of pregnancy presumptive signs

missed menstrual periods
nausea
brest changes
fatigue

257

probable signs of pregnancy

increased frequency of urination
increased size of abdomen
softer cervix (by 6th week)
positive pregnancy test

258

positive signs of pregnancy

fetal heart beat
moving fetus (quickening)
ultrasound observations

259

medical diagnosis of pregnancy

documenting pregnancy symptoms
test for human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in urine
pelvic exam