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1

85% of nephrons- short loops of Henle

Cortical nephrons

2

15% of nephrons- longer loops of Henle

Juxtamedullary nephrons- primary site of urine concentration

3

Where fluid is filtered out of the blood and into the nephron

Glomerulus in the renal corpuscle (Bowman's capsule)

4

Average UO

60ml/hr

5

The rate at which fluid filters from the blood into the Bowman’s capsule

Glomerular Filtration Rate

6

Major site of reabsorption in the nephron

Proximal tubule

7

Na is mainly reabsorbed in this part of the nephron

Proximal tubule

8

Known as the salt retaining hormone, also increases secretion of K

Aldosterone

9

Acts in the collecting tubules, which transmits urine from the nephron and concentrates urine/absorbs water

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

10

ADH is synthesized in the _____ and stored in the _____.

Hypothalamus, posterior pituitary

11

Angiotensin II is a potent ______

Vasoconstrictor

12

Acts in the distal tubule to increase reabsorption of Na and secretion of K

Aldosterone

13

Acts in the collecting tubules to concentrate the urine and reabsorb water

ADH

14

Two effects of ADH:

1. vasoconstrictor blood vessels to increase BP
2. increases reabsorption of water to increase blood volume

15

Increased ADH causes increase of water in blood, low serum Na, edema, and concentrated urine

SIADH

16

The best way to measure GFR

Plasma creatinine

17

Reflective of renal function

GFR

18

Type of ARF where kidneys are normal but hypo perfusion of the kidney causes failure

Prerenal ARF

19

Type of ARF that occurs due to obstruction of urine

Postrenal ARF

20

Type of ARF that results from loss of renal function due to structural damage to the glomeruli and/or tubules

Intrinsic ARF

21

Increased levels of this denote a decreased renal clearance and decline in GFR

Creatinine

22

CKD-kidney damage with normal/increased GFR (GFR >90)

1

23

CKD-kidney damage with mild disease in GFR (GFR 60-89)

2

24

CKD-moderate decrease in GFR (GFR 30-59)

3

25

CKD-severe decrease in GFR (GFR 15-29)

4

26

CKD-kidney failure (GFR < or equal to 15 or dialysis)

5

27

Blood urea levels _____ with a high-protein diet, excessive tissue breakdown, or GI bleed

Rise

28

Kidneys receive _______ of CO for glomeruli to remove metabolic wastes and regulate body fluids and lytes

20-25%

29

Pushes water out of the capillary into interstitial spaces (30-40mmHg arterial, 10-15mmHg venous)
• Aka capillary hydrostatic pressure
• Rise in arterial or venous pressure increases capillary pressure
• Weight of gravity in dependent parts of the body

Capillary filtration pressure

30

Pulls water back into the capillary (28mmHg)
• Osmotic pressure generated by the plasma proteins that are too large to pass through the pores of the capillary wall

Capillary colloidal osmotic pressure