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Flashcards in Unit 4 Deck (110)
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1

Consists of nasopharynx and oropharynx, which helps filter and moisturize air that is inhaled

Upper conducting airways

2

Begin at level of trachea and connects larynx to bronchi

Lower conducting airways

3

What does not occur in the conducting airways?

Gas exchange

4

Primary gas exchange units of lung

Alveoli
(can also occur in bronchioles)

5

The alveoli have two types of epithelial cells:

I- provides structure (elastin)
II- secretes surfactant
*also has alveolar macrophages to remove foreign material to lymph

6

These type of diseases/illnesses increase thickness of respiratory membranes, affecting diffusion of gases across the membrane

Fibrosis, interstitial edema, or pulmonary edema

7

This type of disease results in decrease in surface area of respiratory membrane, resulting in decreased alveolar gas exchange

Emphysema

8

The mechanical movement of gas (air) into and out of the lung

Ventilation

9

How to measure alveolar ventilation

ABG to assess PaCO2

10

Reduces surface tension by forming a monomolecular layer between the fluid lining the alveoli and air in the alveoli- contributes to functional residual capacity (FRC)

Surfactant

11

Measure of lung and chest wall distensibility (ease at which these structures can be stretched, determined by alveolar surface tension and elastic recoil of lung/chest wall)

Compliance

12

Increased compliance, lung/chest wall is abnormally easy to inflate and has lost elastic recoil

Emphysema (chronic overinflation of lungs)

13

Decreased compliance, lungs are stuff and difficult to inflate

PNA, edema, fibrosis, or adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

14

Reduced oxygenation of cells in tissues

Hypoxia

15

Reduced oxygenation of arterial blood

Hypoxemia

16

Most common cause of hypoxemia

Abnormal V/Q (ventilation-perfusion) ratio

17

Blood passing through the pulmonary circulation to be oxygenated

Perfusion

18

Ratio of airflow into the lungs divided by the pulmonary blood flow

Ventilation-Perfusion ratio

19

Delivery of air to some alveoli is obstructed (mucus or alveoli collapse from atelectasis), reduced oxygenation of alveoli

Decreased/low V/Q

20

Alveoli ventilation is normal but capillary perfusion is compromised (pulmonary embolus or MI)

High V/Q

21

Two major patterns of pulmonary dysfunction

Obstructive and Restrictive

22

Increased resistance to airflow as a result of caliber reduction in conducting airways (worse with expiration)

Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

23

3 most common forms of obstructive respiratory disorders

Asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis

24

COPD consists of which two pulmonary disorders?

Emphysema and chronic bronchitis

25

Hallmark of obstructive pulmonary disease

Decrease in expiratory flow rate

26

Most common signs and symptoms of obstructive lung disorders

Dyspnea and wheezing

27

Maximum volume to which the lungs can be expanded

Total lung capacity (TLC)

28

Volume of air remaining (RV) in lungs after most forceful expiration is ________ in obstructive lung disease due to trapping of air during expiration

Elevated

29

Obstructive alteration characterized by spastic contraction of smooth muscle of bronchioles

Asthma

30

Obstructive disorder characterized by hyper secretion of mucus and chronic productive cough

Chronic bronchitis