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1

Last of the "5 Good Emperors," he was also a Stoic philosopher, known for his Meditations.

Marcus Aurelius

2

Site in western Greece of the final victory in 31 B.C. of the navy of Octavian over the navy of Mark Antony and Cleopatra.

Actium

3

Step-son of Augustus who succeeded him, becoming the second emperor of the Roman Empire.

Tiberius

4

Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno; taught that nature is ordered by divine reason, that human beings should accept their place in the divine order, and the secret to the good life is self-mastery (controlling what is actually in your ability to control).

Stoicism

5

Roman stateman who promoted traditional Roman values, he was the leader of the Senate who pushed for Roman to attack and destroy Carthage, leading to the Third Punic War.

Cato the Elder

6

Roman emperor of the second century C.E. who worked to stiffen Roman defenses against barbarian invaders. He directed that a stone wall be built across southern Scotland and a wooden wall b built across the Rhine-Danube triangle.

Hadrian

7

Successful general from Cathage; he won every battle he fought, including the massive defeat of the Roman army at Cannae; but he and his army lost the Second Punic War

Hannibal

8

Roman emperor under whose reign the Empire expanded to its greatest geographical extent. A column in Rome celebrated his victory over the Dacians.

Trajan

9

Two-century long campaign by the plebeians to gain legal and social equality in the Roman Republic.

Struggle of the Orders

10

This 2nd Century B.C. reformer violated the Republican Constitution when he had his fellow Tribune from office to advance his land reforms. He was repaid by becoming the first significant victim of political murder during the Republic.

Tiberius Gracchus

11

First Roman emperor who was not from the old Roman nobility, he was elevated by the army after the confusion and conflict that followed the death of Nero. He had led the original attack against Jerusalem as a result of the Jewish Revolt of 66 C.E.

Vespasian