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Flashcards in Unit Two: Study Guide Questions Deck (20)
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Why did Sparta feel compelled to fight Athens in the Peloponnesian War?

Athen’s steady rise to power scared Sparta. The balance of power had grown uneven -- Sparta was now too strong.


What ideas to the Sophists promote? How did Socrates’ ideas constitute a reaction against the Sophists?

The Sophists doubted the existence of universal truths. They promoted the idea that people should only act in accordance with their own needs. Socrates believed that there was a universal truth and prompted his followers to ask questions about life.


What was Plato’s conception of an ideal government?

Plato believed that perfect governments would be states ruled autocratically by philosopher-kings who would make sure justice was served perfectly.


How did Aristotle depart from Plato’s teachings?

Aristotle did not believe that “perfect forms” existed, instead he advocated studying real beings. Aristotle emphasized logic, rather than idealism.


What comments did Euripides make about Athenians in his plays?

He noted their intense pessimism, their anguish and their lack of a divine moral order.


How did the Greeks use comedy?

The Greeks used comedy to discuss serious topics such as life and war.


What were Hippocrates’ contributions to the founding of modern medicine?

Hippocrates believed that every illness had a natural cause and a natural cure and were not the work of evil spirits. He shifted the conversation and study from the gods to humans.


How did the poleis suffer in the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War?

Democracy was deeply threatened, at least one revolution or war began to occur every ten years.


What are the 5 elements of the tragic hero?

He must be of a high position, not entirely virtuous or entirely bad, have a tragic flaw, learn through suffering and have a tragic downfall


What is catharsis?

The purging of two emotions


Which emotions have to be experienced by the audience in a tragedy?

Pity and fear


Describe Macedonian geography. What problems did it pose for rulers of the region?

There were two parts -- costal in the south and east and mountainous in the interior. It was hard for the rulers to have authority over the tribes in the hills.


What were Philip II's main innovations in warfare?

He gave them 13 ft. pikes and invented the catapult.


What tactics did Alexander use to succeed in his campaigns?

Siege warfare, brutality in war but generosity to subjects


What were Alexander's legacies?

The founding of cities wherever he conquered that were populated by Greek colonists, the intermarriage of Greeks, Macedoneans and Asians and the gathering of soldiers from the peoples he conquered.


How did the Ptolomies rule Egypt, and in what ways were they different rulers than before?

Egypt became intellectual and cultural, they established a museum, taxes on the peasants were reduced and payments to the priests were increased.


What changes in warfare took place under the Hellenistic kings? Slavery?

Mercenaries were now used quite often, war elephants were used quite often, taxes were raised and citizens were casualties. Loser in battle were enslaved by the thousands.


What were the main themes of Hellenistic literature?

Individual plights, star crossed lovers


How did the mystery cults differ from the older civic cults?

The gods had international appeal and were accessible to ordinary individuals. The afterlife was also hopeful as an escape from the real world.


What was the significance of Euclid's geometry? What were the later achievements that built upon his work?

People were able to calculate such things as the length around the earth and the distance from the sun to the moon. It was significant because people could stop worrying about superstition and go ahead and prove their ideas with logic.