Humanities Unit 2 - Identify and Define Flashcards Preview

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1

Tyranny

A government in which a single ruler is vested with absolute power.

2

Acropolis

A city that is built on a hill so that it can be easily defended.

3

Pathos

Emotion of a person or being (appeal to emotion)

4

Ethos

the idea or essence of a person or being

5

cynicism

The belief that materialism is wrong and one must involve oneself in the material world as little as possible

6

stoicism

the belief that one can only control oneself. Stoicism also promoted the idea that universal reason exists in all people.

7

epicureanism

the belief that pleasure is the highest good (everything in moderation.)

8

oligarchy

a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people.

9

Herodotus

Known as the father of History, Herodotus

10

Tragic Hero

Of a high position, neither good nor bad who has a tragic flaw leading to a tragic downfall and ultimately learns from his mistake.

11

Alcibiades

Athenian leader during the Peloponnesian War. He directed Athenian men to meddle in Sicily which ended up costing them 200 ships and 40,000 men.

12

Socratic Method

A style of teaching invented by Socrates. The method involves a teacher asking students questions, the students answering those questions and the teacher refuting or correcting the answers.

13

Ictinus

Ictinus was a Greek architect. He is credited with being one of the co-architects of the Parthenon.

14

Myron

a Greek sculptor. He is best known for sculpting the famous statue Discus Thrower.

15

Phidias

Phidias was a greek sculptor and architect. He is best known for his statue of Athena.

16

Polyclitus

Polyclitus was a Greek sculptor. He is best known for his statue Spear Bearer.

17

façade

the front of a building

18

colonnade

the colonnade consists of the series of columns that are erected around a building.

19

antiquarianism

study or love of antiquity, scholarly works instead of fiction, book learning rather than inspiration.

20

mosaic

an artistic composition, usually used for flooring, which was created by using small cubes of stone called tesserae which are then set in cement.

21

Rosetta Stone

A stone found in 1799 recording the reign of Ptolomy and written in hyrogliphics, egyptian cursive script and Greek

22

Winged Victory

A statue of Nike striding into victory

23

Sappho

A Greek poet from Lesbos who expressed in her poems love for the women around her.

24

Areopagus

A prestigious governing council of ancient Athens

25

ostracism

A political technique of ancient Greece by which people believed to be threats to the city-state were chosen for exile by popular vote

26

Helots

Selfs in ancient Sparta

27

Hellenic

The period in Greek history between the 4th and 1st century.

28

Marathon

the battle of Marathon in 490 BC, in which the heavily outnumbered Athenian army defeated the Persians.

29

Delian League

A confederation of Aegean islands centered around a large fleet paid for by all to protect them all. Athens was the strongest member and began to dominate.

30

Golden Age

The Golden Age of Greece was the fifth century BC in which there was a growth of philosophy, art and politics.

31

Dyonisus (related to drama)

Dyonisis was the Greek god of wine and revelry. Greek drama most likely began as choruses that were performed in honor of him

32

Thespis

The first known actor in Greek drama, he lived in the 6th century BC.

33

Prologue

The part of the play that sets the scene and outlines the plot

34

epilogue

the end or afterstory of the play

35

deus ex machina

the solving of seemingly unsolvable problems by divine intervention.

36

katharsis

the climax of the play in which pity and fear are wrong from the audience.

37

Name their most famous work: Aeschylus

The Orestia

38

Name their most famous work: Sophocles

Oedipus the King, Antigone

39

Name their most famous work: Euripides

The Bacchae

40

Name their most famous work: Aristotle

On Poetics

41

Aristotle's 6 Elements

Plot, character, thought, diction, song, spectacle

42

Humanism

Man is the measure of all things

43

Idealism

The representation of something as it should be — the perfect form

44

Rationalism

The value of reason above all.

45

The three time divisions of Ancient Greece

Archaic (8th-6th c), Classical (5th), Hellenistic

46

The three major architectural orders

Doric, Ionic, Corinthian

47

Three places for statues

Inside, On the friezes, on the pediment

48

Greek general Miltiades defeated the Persian army here in 490 B.C.E. during the first Persian War. This victory spared Athens for a decade from the burning wrath of the Persians.

Marathon

49

He was raised in Pericles' house and was a talented leader. But his love for the ladies and excessive ambition led him at various times to help Sparta against Athens and to flee to the Persians for protection. He returned to Athens to try and help defeat Sparta at the end of the Peloponnesian Wars.

Alcibiades

50

The first Greek philosopher, he promoted rational inquiry into the world without using the gods to explain how things came to be. His proposal that the earth emerged out of water was similar to the view of the Greek myths, but he explained it by natural causes, rather than as the action of the gods.

Thales

51

Greek statesman who in 621 B.C.E. produced the first written code of Athenian law. It was thought that the penalties his laws imposed were a bit harsh

Draco

52

Farmer and author who around 700 penned Works and Days, a detailed description of the life of the Greek farmers, honoring their arduous labors.

Hesiod

53

Citizen/farmer/soldiers in Athens who with shield and spear would fight in close-order ranks; these small landowners were the majority of Athens' citizens.

hoplites

54

The basic political unit of ancient Greece, it usually included a fortress (an acropolis) and included the villages and farm-land that surrounded a city.

polis

55

The "Scene House" of a Greek theater -- it is the building oset used as the backdrop for the play and as a means for actors to enter and exit the stage.

skene

56

Promoter of the philosophy of "atomism," the assertion that all reality is made up of tiny, unchanging particles (atoms) that are continually moving about and being combined and recombined into the things that our senses perceive. Because all things are made of this kind of material, even mind is a material thing.

Democritus

57

The first building one would enter after climbing the Acropolis in Athens, the entryway to the sacred precincts on the Acropolis. It was built of both Doric and Ionic columns, stressing the unity of the Dorian Greeks of the mainland and the Ionian Greeks of the islands.

Propylaea