Flashcards in Unit 3: Neurobiology and immunology - Divisions of The Nervous System and Neutral Pathways Deck (27)
What are the 2 main parts the nervous system can be broken down into?
The central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
What makes up the central nervous system?
The brain and the spinal cord.
What makes up the peripheral nervous system?
The somatic and autonomic nervous system.
What makes up the autonomic nervous system?
The sympathetic and parasympathetic system.
What does the somatic nervous system contain?
Sensory and motor neurons.
What do sensory neurons do?
Sensory neurons take impulses from sense organs to the CNS.
What do motor neurons do?
Take impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands. which leads to the appropriate contractions by muscles or secretions from glands.
What does the autonomic nervous system consist of?
The sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.
How do the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems work and what does this mean?
They work antagonistically which means that they affect many of the same structure but have the opposite effects on them.
What does the sympathetic system do generally?
It prepares the body for action (fight or flight).
What does the parasympathetic system do in general?
It rests and relaxes the body for rest and digest.
Is the autonomic nervous system voluntary or involuntary and what does this mean?
Involuntary meaning done without will or conscious control.
What is the antagonistic action of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on the effect of heart rate?
Sympathetic increases cardiac output. Parasympathetic decreases cardiac output.
What is the antagonistic action of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system on the effect of breathing rate?
Sympathetic increases intake of air. Parasympathetic decreases intake of air.
What is the antagonistic action of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on the effect of peristalsis?
Sympathetic decreases the rate of peristalsis. Parasympathetic increases the rate of peristalsis.
What is the antagonistic action of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on the effect of the production of intestinal secretions?
Sympathetic decreases production of intestinal secretions. Parasympathetic increases production of intestinal secretions.
What are neurons?
The cells of the nervous system.
What does converging mean?
To come together and meet at a common point.
Where do converging pathways occur?
Converging pathways occur where impulses from several neurons travel to one neuron.
What do converging neural pathways do?
Converging neural pathways increase the sensitivity to excitatory or inhibitory signals.
What is an example of a converging neural pathway?
An example is where the neurons from rods in the retina/eye converge - this increases sensitivity to low levels of light.
What does to diverge mean?
To branch out from a common point.
What happens in a diverging neural pathway?
Impulses from one neuron travel to several neurons, therefore affecting more than one destination at the same time.
What is an example of a diverging pathway?
The fine motor control in the fingers.
What does reverberation mean?
Reverberation means a sound that occurs repeatedly, as in an echo.
What happens in a reverberating pathway and what does this allow to happen?
Neurons later in the pathway link with branching neurons, sending the impulse back through the pathway. This allows repeated simulation of the pathway.