Unit 3: Neurobiology and immunology - Immunisation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3: Neurobiology and immunology - Immunisation Deck (12)
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How can immunity be developed?

By vaccination with antigens from infectious pathogens, so creating more memory cells.


What are the antigens used in vaccines?

Inactivated pathogen toxins, dead pathogens, parts of pathogens and weakened pathogens.


What are antigens mixed with when producing the vaccine?

An adjuvant.


What are adjuvants?

Substances which make the vaccine more effective and so enhances the immune response.


What is the difference between vaccination and immunisation?

Immunisation is what happens in your body after you have had a vaccine

The vaccine which contains inactivated or weakened pathogens stimulate your immune system so that it can recognise and protect you from future infection.


When does herd immunity occur?

When a large percentage of a population are immunised.


What is establishing herd immunity important for?

Establishing herd immunity is important in reducing the spread of diseases and in protecting vulnerable and non-immune individuals.


How does herd immunity protect non-immune individuals?

If a large percentage of the population are immunised, non-immune individuals are protected as there is a lower probability that they will come into contact with infected individuals.


When can difficulties occur with widespread vaccination?

It is not possible due to poverty in the developing world, or when vaccines are rejected by a percentage of the population in the developed world.


What have some pathogens done to evade the immune system?

They have evolved mechanisms and changed their antigens.


What does the fact some pathogens change their antigens mean for memory cells and what is this called?

They are not effective against them and this is called antigenic mutation.


What happens to the influenza which means that it is a major public health problem and how do we combat this?

Antigenic variation occurs. Individuals who are at risk need to be vaccinated every year because of it.