Flashcards in Unit 1: human cells- Division and differentiation in human cells Deck (36)
What are somatic cells?
Somatic cells are any cells in the body other than cells involved in reproduction.
Why do somatic cells divide?
Somatic cells divide during growth and repair to increase and maintain total cell numbers.
What are stem cells?
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have a unique property in that they not only make new copies of themselves (self renew), but can also differentiate to become a range of specific cell types.
What is Cellular Differentiation?
Cellular Differentiation is a process by which a cell expresses certain genes to produce proteins characteristic for that cell type. This allows a cell to carry out specialised functions.
What do differentiated cells only have a few of and what does this mean for the cell?
Differentiated cells only have a few genes switched on and those that are not required for that specific cells function are switched off, meaning only the proteins that the cell requires to function are produced.
Where are adult tissue stem cells found?
Adult tissue stem cells are found in the tissue of adults and children, including the skin and bone marrow.
Are adult tissue stem cells capable of dividing into a wide range of differentiated cells?
No they are only capable of dividing into a LIMITED range of differentiated cells.
Can adult tissue stem cells be used successfully in bone marrow transplants?
Where are embryonic stem cells found?
In the inner cell masses of early embryos (blastocyst).
Are embryonic stem cells capable of dividing into a wide range of differentiated cells?
What is the meaning of multipotent?
Cells that have the ability/are capable of giving rise to a limited number of cell types.
What is the meaning of pluripotent?
Cells that have the ability/are capable of developing into ALL types of cells.
What is an example of a multipotent cell?
Adult tissue stem cell.
What is an example of a pluripotent cell?
Embryonic stem cells.
Why are embryonic stem cells capable of differentiating into any specialised cell type?
They are pluripotent.
Why do adult tissue need stem cells?
To maintain cell numbers, by repairing/replacing damaged cells within the tissues or organs where they are found.
Where is the location of the tissue stem cells which develop into blood cells?
What are germline cells?
A lineage of cells that divide to form/produce gametes.
Are germline cells diploid or haploid?
How many pairs of chromosomes do germline cells have?
23 pairs of homologous chromosomes.
How do germline cells divide to produce more germline cells?
What is the process of division called that germline cells undergo to produce haploid gametes?
What are examples of somatic cells?
All body cells of an organism - apart from the sperm and egg cells, like red blood cells, muscle cells and hair cells.
What are example of gametes?
Egg and sperm.
How do somatic cells divide and why is this important?
Somatic cells divide by mitosis so the daughter cells obtain all of the genetic info they need to function and so no genetic info is lost.
How many chromosomes do haploid cells have?
How many chromosomes do diploid cells have?
Why can embryonic stem cells differentiate into any cell type?
All the genes in embryonic stem cells are switched on, so these cells can differentiate into any cell type.
What are adult tissue stem cells involved in and why is this?
Adult tissue stem cells are involved in the growth, repair and renewal of the cells found in that tissue, as they are multipotent.