Unit 3.1.2 - The Digestive System Flashcards Preview

AS Biology - Unit 1 > Unit 3.1.2 - The Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 3.1.2 - The Digestive System Deck (93)
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1

Digestion is the process where?

Large molecules care hydrolysed by enzymes to produce smaller molecules that can be absorbed and assimilated

2

What does absorption mean?

It is when molecules move from the digestive system into the blood

3

What does assimilated mean?

Where absorbed molecules are incorporated into body tissues

4

What are the two types of digestion?

Chemical and physical

5

What is meant by physical digestion?

It is when food is broken down into smaller pieces by the teeth in the mouth or by the churning movements of the stomach muscles

6

What is meant by chemical digestion?

Where polymers are broken down into monomers by hydrolysis

7

What are the monomers for carbohydrates called?

Monosaccharide

8

What are the monomers for protein called?

Amino acid

9

What is the difference between monosaccharaides and amino acids in terms of the elements they contain?

Monosaccharaides contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and amino acids contain the same elements as well as nitrogen

10

What is a polymer?

A large molecule made up of repeating smaller molecules called monomers

11

What reaction do you do to join polymers?

Condensation reaction

12

What reaction do you do to break up polymers?

Hydrolysis reaction

13

Out of a condensation reaction and hydrolysis reaction which ones requires water molecules and which one released water molecules?

Condensation reaction releases a water molecules and a hydrolysis reaction takes in a water molecule

14

Draw what happens during a hydrolysis reaction between polymers?

See flash card 2

15

Draw and label the parts of the digestive system?

See flash card 1

16

Starch is broken down into? by which enzyme?

Maltose by amylase

17

Maltose is broken down into? by which enzyme?

Glucose by maltase

18

Lipids are broken down into? by which enzyme?

Fatty acids + glycerol by lipase

19

Proteins are broken down into? by which enzymes?

Polypeptides by endopeptidase

20

Polypeptides are broken down into? by which enzymes?

Amino acids by exopeptidase

21

Name two examples of endopeptidase?

Pepsin and trypsin

22

Name an example of exopeptidase?

Peptidase

23

How is starch converted into glucose?

It is hydrolysed into maltose by the enzyme amylase, the maltose is then hydrolysed into glucose by the enzyme maltase

24

What is amylase released by?

The salivary glands and the pancreas

25

What is maltase released by?

The intestinal epithelium

26

What is lipase released by?

The pancreas and intestinal epithelium

27

Endopeptidase and exopeptidase are both examples of ?

Proteases

28

How is the salivary gland important in digestion?

It produces saliva which contains the enzyme amylase, saliva also lubricates the food making it easier to swallow

29

Where is bile produced, stored and released into?

Bile is made by the liver, stored in the gall bladder and then secreted into the small intestine

30

Give two reasons why bile is important in the digestive system?

It neutralises stomach acid so the enzymes in the small intestine aren't denatured by the acidic pH value, it also emulsifies the lipids increasing the surface area of the lipase enzyme to work on