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what is a staple food?

Foods that make up a region’s basic food supply
Dependent on what is able to grow in the region
Ex: wheat, rice, corn, oats, lentils, etc.


what are factors that determine staple food supply

Geography: good rich soil, on valleys & plains; mountainous regions are more difficult to farm
Climate: sometimes only seasonal growing when temperatures are warm
Rainfall: some rain is necessary for all agriculture


what are typical staple foods?

35% of world’s population relies on it
high in nutrients, easy to store & transport.
second largest cereal crop
Low in nutrients
relying on it can lead to nutritional deficiency
Rice :
one of the oldest & most important staples
has less protein than other grains & is mostly carbs.


what is food security

Having physical and financial access to safe, nutritious food
The food meets dietary needs
Food preferences are available for a healthy, active life


what is hunger

Craving or urgent need for food or a specific nutrient
a weakened condition brought by prolonged lack of food
World hunger is not the best term.


what is a developed nation

Developed nation: industrialized nation which relies on sophisticated, organized food industries to supply food. (grocery stores, restaurants, etc.)


what is a developing nation

Developing nation: not yet industrialized or are just beginning to become so. People must grow most of their own food.


3 causes of food insecurity in developing nations

3 Causes of Food Insecurity in Developing Nations:

1) Low agricultural productivity caused by one or a combination of factors:

- political, (conflict/war, corruption)
- institutional (Lack of agricultural education)
- limited technological = limited production = subsistence farming*
* farming only to meet needs of family, relying only on yourself for your food

2) Seasonal and yearly weather causing lack of rainfall

- insufficient water for crops & livestock, creates instability

3) Unstable employment to contributes to low & unstable incomes in urban and rural areas


what is a food shortage

Food Shortages: food is simply not available
Estimated 800 million don’t have enough to eat.
More than 20% of the world is chronically undernourished
Most severe shortages are famines, lasting months or years
Caused by issues in agricultural productivity/unstable access to food, and several other factors


factors that contribute to hunger in developing nations

Factors that Contribute to Hunger in Developing Nations:
**In addition to factors impacting food insecurity...

Economics: in most developing countries people are too poor to afford food and must live on meager home grown staples (subsistence farming)
Food Distribution Networks:
Good roads are rare in developing countries.
Villages can be isolated and food distribution is difficult
Fuel shortages: people are unable to cook their food
Overpopulation: more people, more land taken for housing that was used for farming, clearing forests means removing the most common source of fuel for cooking.
War & politics:
Farms & livestock are destroyed, people have to flee, the food distribution system is disrupted.
Food can be used as a political weapon by interrupting food supply, selling, trading on black market for weapons
Natural disasters: crops damaged, animals die, soil erosion during drought or flood, roads damaged


common micronutrient deficiency - iron

)Iron: 66-80% of the world is estimated to be deficient.
Leads to: illness, maternal hemorrhaging, premature death
Also contributes to lower work productivity, poor academics, loss of earning
Loss of earning affects communities and the whole country → more people become deficient
Mostly affects poor and least educated→ these people also have the most to gain from improved iron levels


common micronutrient deficiency - vitamin A

Vitamin A: essential for immune system
Deficiency results in blindness, higher risk of measles, malaria, diarrhea
Vit. A reduces:
risk of maternal & infant death
infection and anemia
Vit. A improves:
child survival rate … which adds to communities’ development


common micronutrient deficiency - iodine

deficiency causes brain damage
can be improved by iodized salt
improves babies’ health
prevents cretinism from of mental cognitive abnormalities


factors of malnutrition


low income
low education
poor access to education
*Malnutrition is the single most important risk factor for disease


downward spiral of bad nutrition

Low income leads to lower quality food purchased and consumed
Consuming food with low nutritional value leads to higher risk of illness
Illness decreases ability to grow food or earn enough to buy food
Leads to lower income, lower quality food
Leads to nutritional deficiencies and hunger, eventually can end in death



Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO):

Focuses on countries increasing their food production in sufficient, sustainable, culturally appropriate ways
Ensures access to food
Invests in food security
Deals properly with disasters



Special Program of Food Security (SPFS):
Believe that changes in food security come from two areas:
Local - teaching farmers about new methods
National - changing institutions & policies in government



Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA):
Works with farmers to improve production methods in agriculture
Is key to rural development in developing nations.
*If farmers are more successful the overall health and well-being of their community improves.*
Increase global food supply by:
Increasing water supply with what they have.
Educating people to improve methods and equipment



World Food Program (WFP):
Is the food aid section of the United Nations
Mission: to eradicate global hunger and poverty
Uses food to meet emergency needs and support economic and social development

WFP Fights Hunger Through:
Rescue: ready to provide food aid during disaster or war
Rapid Reaction: plans to move food and aid quickly to needed areas
Rehabilitation: helps get affected areas back to normal
Deterrence: to combat malnutrition of children and workers to help people and communities get out of poverty and hunger.


what causes hunger in canada

Intrinsically connected to changes in income and social support programs
Declining number of jobs that offer living wage
Increase in “non-standard” work
contract, part-time
Social programs are not as accessible as they are to urban dwellers.
Rural residents are more dependent on cars
additional substantial cost incurred
Fewer employment opportunities
Canada's current unemployment rate is approximately 13.7% ( due to COVID19)
Before 2020, the rate was typically between 5-7%.


what is the anti-poverty approach

Anti-Poverty Approach:
Assumes we produce enough food for everyone
Many people do not have access to that food
This approach believes the causes of hunger and poverty are:
high unemployment
“good” & “bad” jobs
minimum wages below poverty line
inadequate social welfare levels
high cost of housing


what is the sustainable food systems approach

The Sustainable Food Systems approach:
Look at changes over the last 70 years.
Those changes include:
Marginalization of small-scale food producers and processors
Urbanization And loss of rural ways
Ex: taking care of your neighbor, especially with sharing food
changing packaging to increase profit
Ex: large sizes, reduced weight in packs, fewer bread slices in a pack.
Alienation of consumers from food producers
Ex: loss of connection and understanding of where our food comes from.
This approach believes the causes of hunger and poverty are:
Corporate control of food system
Disregard for environmental and human costs which makes it unsustainable.
Issues at several/all components of the food system:
production, distribution, preservation, preparation, and consumption,
Recycling of food waste must improve to become more sustainable.
Farmers markets, community gardens and kitchens must help the poor provide their own food.


food security in Canada definition

Definition of Food Security in Canada:

Availability of a variety of foods at reasonable cost
Ready access to quality food stores, food services or alternative food sources
Sufficient income from household for food
Freedom to choose personally & culturally acceptable foods
Confidence in the food available
Easy access to information on food & nutrition
Assurance of a viable sustainable food production system


methods of food subsidization

Food banks: free access to donated food by individuals or business
Community gardens: vegetable gardens grown by community groups who share
The produce
Good Food Box: distributed boxes of affordable, local fruits & vegetables
Food Access Grants: grants for social service agencies for their food access
programs to make good-quality food more available
Diversion of food to food banks: “Reclaims” safe but unsellable food to food
Community Kitchens: Groups of people come together to cook large quantities of food to reduce the overall costs for everyone.


obesity rates over the years

1978 – 14%
2004 - 23%
2014 - 28%


what is gas chromatography

Gas chromatography
Became commercially available in 1954
Analyzes and extracts individual compound from one “flavour”
Therefore, it allows scientists to recreate flavours using chemical compounds


vanilla and vanillin

Most real vanilla is from Madagascar
In the 1930s, a new regime took over, and it ruined bumper crops (unproductive crops) to boost the cost of vanilla
This made vanilla scarce, driving prices up
Therefore, companies looked for a new source
Vanillin - makes the taste of vanilla
made from white crystallized substance in pine cones
Now can come from many sources, including completely synthetic flavouring


what is natural flavour

Natural flavour: derived from a plant or animal source
Does not mean it is taken from the food which flavour it mimics
Ex. Natural almond flavour mostly comes from the pits of peaches and apricots.
Ex. Natural raspberry/strawberry flavours can sometimes come from secretions from beavers.

Natural flavouring also refers to natural chemical processes
Using enzymes, heat or organic solvents to extract flavourings


what is artificial flavour

Artificial flavour: not derived from a plant or animal source
Typically a synthesized chemical


which type of flavouring is better

Maybe slight difference in taste, no difference in safety
Just because something is artificial, does not mean it is harmful
Usually these flavourings are even more controlled for safety
However, “natural” sells better - important in food marketing