unit 1 nutrition quiz 2 - metabolism, macros and micros Flashcards Preview

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what is metabolism?

Is the chemical reactions in the body’s cells that convert energy from food, into energy the
body can be used to function.

Specific proteins in the body control these chemical reactions.

Thousands of metabolic reactions occur at the same time.


What are our micronutrients?

minerals (calcium, sodium, potassium, etc.), water, and vitamins (fat soluble [A E D K] and water soluble [C B12])

These are required in smaller amounts than macronutrients but are still very important.

essential for regulating body processes - breathing, blinking, digestion, etc.


What are our macronutrients?

carbs (55%) - sugars, starches, complex fibres w no energy

proteins (12-15%) - complete/incomplete

lipids/fats (30% max.) - monounsaturates, polyunsaturates, saturates/cholestrol

these all produce our energy


Enzymes and metabolism

Enzymes break down food into nutrients, then break down nutrients to make compounds for energy. These compounds are absorbed by the bloodstream and transported to cells for immediate use or storing (especially in the liver, muscles & body fat)
Carbohydrates → (amylases) → glucose
Proteins → (proteases) → amino acids
Fats → (lipases) → fatty acids
Cells store energy in the form of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) which is used to power several essential functions.


What is catabolism?

Catabolism: process of breaking down molecules to release energy for anabolism


What is anabolism?

Anabolism: process of building up & storing larger molecules for new cell growth, maintaining tissues, storing energy


Where does the waste from metabolism go?

Waste from cell metabolism leaves body through skin, kidneys, lungs & colon


What is Basal Metabolic Rate/BMR?

**Basal Metabolic Rate - BMR is a measure of the rate at which a person's body performs metabolism ("burns" energy, in the form of calories, while at rest).


Nutrient definition

Nutrient(s) : chemical(s) from food that the body uses to carry out its functions of growth, maintenance and repair


Nutrition definition

Nutrition: the study of nutrients and how they are used by the body


Nutritious definition

Nutritious: Foods that provide the nutrients in the right amount


Nutrient dense and deficiency

Nutrient dense: foods that are low to moderate in calories and rich in important nutrients
Nutrient deficiency: a severe nutrient shortage
Non balanced diet/condition with digestion with absorption


Tell me all about carbs, baybeyyyy

Carbohydrates (55+% of diet) (CHO)
Carbs are our main hoes, we need them and are the real deal, not fake

Main energy source for our bodies, found in many diverse whole foods
4 cals./gram
Body’s main source of energy
From plant sources (except milk)
(fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes) - those are the easiest carbs
Types of carbohydrates are starches, sugars and fibre.
Decent energy per gram, easily broken down


What are carbs made of?

Carbohydrates are made up of Carbon, Hydrogen & Oxygen atoms
Elements are combined through chemical bonds to create compounds. Compounds form sugars or saccharides (CHO)
The brain produces serotonin when we eat high carb. foods like bread and pasta. Serotonin makes us feel happy, hence the name “comfort foods”.
Carbs look like rings chemically; rings = saccharides, ex. Glucose or fructose rings


What are the two types of carbs?

Simple carbohydrates - access energy from quicker
Complex carbohydrates - slower release of energy, last longer


Tell me all about simple sugars

Simple Sugars - Monosaccharides (mono=one)
One sugar molecule makes up simple sugars
made of one sugar molecule
Glucose: body’s source of energy (key simple sugar for our bodies)
Easiest way to get sugar.
Pentagon ring, extra carbon in ring than fructose
Fructose - naturally occurring in fruits, also a component of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)
Slightly different from glucose, pentagon ring, one less carbon in its ring
Galactose - (must bond with glucose to become lactose)
Not typically found on its own, similar to glucose

Simple Sugars – Disaccharides (di=two)
made of two sugar molecules
Body splits disaccharides into monosaccharides, during digestion
Get rearranged
Sucrose (white sugar) (extracted from plants, like sugar cane and sugar beets, honey, maple syrup, molasses and br. sugar and used as sweeteners)
Table sugar, maple sugar, etc.
Maltose (grain)(formed in the digestion of starch)
Malt beverages, alcohol,
Lactose (milk)
Glucose and galactose combined


Tell me all about complex sugars

Complex Carbohydrates (poly=many)
Are polysaccharides - can be hundreds of rings combined
Can be starches, like flour, potatoes,
- made of many sugar molecules
- Starches (made of many glucose molecules - broken down during digestion)
- Fibre - body does not digest fibre to an extent, no energy from it like others, molecules are different and we can’t break them down. Bulks up our food.


4 functions of carbs- what do they do for us?

1) Produce energy
- body’s preferred source of energy
- body will draw energy from fats and protein if carbohydrates are insufficient

2) Store energy
If your body has enough glucose for its current needs, extra glucose can be stored for later use.
This is used to keep providing the body with energy and maintain healthy blood sugar levels between meals

3) Spares protein
- body is less efficient at breaking down protein
- body needs protein for tissue building and repair instead of energy

4) Provides bulk in our diet (fibre)
- promotes good digestion and regularity
- provides a “workout” for intestinal/peristalsis muscles to stay toned


Tell me all about dietary fibre (both kinds ;) )

Dietary Fibre:

2 types: Soluble (forms a gel) & Insoluble (doesn’t)
- provides no energy/calories

- 25 grams/day for women
- 38 grams/day for men
- to calculate the fibre needs during growth years add 5 to the age
(a 17 yrs. old needs 22 grams of fibre/day)

2 Types of Dietary Fibre
Soluble fibre: - can be more than just fibre, ex. Beans also have protein and sugars, etc.
- Reduces LDL “bad” cholesterol levels
- dissolves in water (gel-like once it absorbs water, helps things to move through)
- increases the thickness of the stomach contents, making you feel fuller.
- found in vegetables, fruits, legumes, lentils, oats (oat bran)

Insoluble fibre: (moves food along and bulks up waste, nothing else)
- does not dissolve in water
- absorbs water to create bulk - helps us to stay full
- helps move food through the large intestine
- lowers risk of colon cancer
- in fruits, vegetables, whole wheat and wheat bran products


Tell me all about whole grains and the real truth about them

What does “whole grain” mean?
Whole grain products use all 3 parts of the grain kernel.
The bran
The germ
The endosperm

Refined grain products have had the germ and bran removed in processing
The bran is the outer layer (lots of fibre)
The germ is nutrient rich
The endosperm is largest part and contains mostly starch (proteins)
Refined grain products have had the germ and bran removed in processing.

The Whole Grain Truth
Whole wheat on the label doesn’t mean it’s wholegrain.
In reality, and legally, only 10% of the flour has to come from wholegrain for it to be labeled “whole wheat bread”
Look for:
- “Wholegrain” or”100% whole wheat” appears in the first ingredient on the list.
- That way you know you’re getting the fibre, vitamin B, minerals & antioxidants!


How does the body use carbs?

All CHO must be in the form of glucose to be used for energy.
Polysaccharides & disaccharides are digested and broken down into glucose (which is a monosaccharide)
- Any fructose or galactose (monosaccharides) in blood are converted to glucose in the liver.
- Glucose moves across intestinal wall through microvilli into the bloodstream and travels to the liver


What hormones are used in the body and how do they work to break down carbs?

Hormone : a chemical produced in the body & released in the blood to regulate (almost all) body processes.
When glucose levels rise in the blood (after eating) the hormone, insulin is released from the pancreas.
Insulin helps the body lower glucose levels in blood
- stimulates the body to pull glucose from blood and use it as energy.
- stimulates body to store excess as glycogen in muscles (2/3) & liver (1/3)

If blood sugar levels decrease below optimal conditions, the pancreas can also release a hormone called Glucagon
Glucagon sends a message to the liver to release glucose into the bloodstream
This helps keep normal blood glucose levels so cells can continue pulling glucose from the blood for energy
This may occur during vigorous exercise or when you have not provided your body with carbs for a long period of time


What's the difference between complex carbs and sugars?

Complex Carbohydrates
- Are polysaccharides that are more complex in their structure
- Take longer to digest and breakdown
- Therefore they have greater satiety
Satiety: describes a feeling of fullness
Complex carbs –make you feel fuller, longer

Natural sugars: glucose, fructose & lactose usually accompany other nutrients
Coming from whole foods
Refined sugars: are separated from natural sources (sugar cane, sugar beets, corn)
Added to foods as sweeteners, for browning product (looks appetizing), preserving (longer shelf-life), adding bulk, adding flavour
Reduces nutrient density of processed food


If all carbs are just sugars converted to glucose…what’s the difference, why not eat a chocolate bar instead of a sandwich?

Other nutrients are found in sandwiches and whole nutrition.
Complex carbs leave you full for longer.


CHO food additives and their functions

Starches- cornstarch, arrowroot, potato starch, rice flour, tapioca,
Provide bulk, structure, stabilizes gels, thickens food

Gums & pectin- algin, carrageenan, gum agar, gum Arabic, gum tragacanth, karaya gum
Mimics the texture and viscosity of fat, thicken and stabilize mixtures

Simple sugars- corn sweetener, corn syrup, dextrose, maltose, fructose, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, invert sugar, lactose, molasses, sucrose
Adds sweetness, helps browning process, forms syrups, preserves food/longer shelf life.


lactose intolerance

an inability to digest lactose, the main CHO in milk.
- Caused by lack of the enzyme lactase, needs to break down lactose.


celiac disease

is a medical condition in which the surface of the small intestine is damaged by a substance called gluten. This results in an inability of the body to absorb nutrients: protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals.



refers to a low blood glucose level.
- Overproduction of insulin causes blood sugar to drop sharply 2-4hrs after eating.
- Low blood sugar causes sweating, shaking, headaches and hunger
- Eat regularly, (small frequent meals)
- Avoid eating a lot of sugar at once



refers to a high blood glucose level



is a lack of or inability to use the hormone insulin to regulate blood glucose levels.
- Remember… Carbs are digested & converted to glucose which enters the bloodstream
- Insulin stimulates the body to pull the glucose from the blood and use it as energy or store it as glycogen.
- When the body doesn’t produce enough insulin in the pancreas or fails to use the insulin properly, the blood glucose levels buildup.