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where and when did the rda come from
(recommended dietary allowance)

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
Was created during WWII
To investigate issues of nutrition that might "affect national defense"
The standards would be used for nutrition recommendations for the armed forces, for civilians , and for overseas populations who might need food relief.
Because of food rationing during the war, the food guides created by government agencies were to direct citizens' nutritional intake & also took food availability into account. (Ex. sugar is ‘rationed’ so soldiers can have some)
In the early 1950’s , the United States Department of Agriculture nutritionists made a new set of guidelines that also included the number of servings of each food group in order to make it easier for people to receive their RDAs of each nutrient.
Is revised every 5-10 years.


what is DRI's

DRI (Dietary Reference Intakes)
general term for a set of reference values used to plan and assess nutrient intakes of people. Used in Canada and US


what is EAR

(EAR) Estimated Average Requirement
the average daily intake value estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a life-stage and gender group.
used to calculate the RDA.


what is RDA

(RDA) Recommended Dietary Allowance
average daily level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%-98%) healthy people.


what is AI

(AI) Adequate Intake:
established when scientific evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA
is set at a level assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy.
Examples - fibre and how much we need. For a while we just guessed but didn’t have enough evidence to set a level of what would be adequate.


what is UL

(UL) Upper Intake Level:
Maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects.
Ex. - excess protein/minerals/carbs, etc.


what is AMDR

AMDR) Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
a range of intake for an energy source (protein, fat, or carbohydrate),
associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients.
Carbohydrates (45-65% of energy), Proteins (10-35% of energy), Fats (20-35% of energy) - limit saturated and trans


what are food dyes?

Chemical substances that were developed to enhance the appearance of food
- Have been added to food for centuries

- Artificial food colourings were created in 1856 from coal tar
- Artificial food dyes are made from petroleum


who consume the most artificial food dyes and what do they do

Responsible for bright colours of candy, sports drinks and baked goods
- Even used in some brands of pickles, smoked salmon, cereals and medications
- Have different allowances in different countries
- Europe typically being more rigid than the US
- Consumption has increased by 500% in the last 50 years!
- Children are the biggest consumers


what are the most popular food dyes?

Most popular are Red 40, Yellow 5 and Yellow 6
These make up 90% of food dye used in the US


what is wrong with Tartrazine

Tartrazine, also known as Yellow 5, has been associated with behavioural changes including:
Difficulty sleeping
Several studies have concluded that artificial food dyes do increase hyperactivity in children
Sensitivity can vary from child to child.
- People can be allergic to them
- There is some concern about dyes containing cancer-causing properties
Blue 2 increasing brain tumors when high doses used on animals
Red 3 showed to increase risk of thyroid tumors in male rats
this dye is still used in maraschino cherries, candies and popsicles


what foods are we not expecting to find food dyes?

- Balsamic vinegar
Darkened w caramel colour
- Processed bread
Caramel colour as well for golden look
- Salad dressings
Yellow 6, Red 40
- Energy bars
Red 40, Blue 1


3 categories of processed food

minimally processed, semi processed, ultra processed


minimally processed

Minimally Processed
Doesn’t diminish nutrients
-makes it easier to eat,
-more convenient, or
-less perishable
Close to its natural state like…
-shelled nuts,
-nut butters
-dried fruit,
-frozen veggies
-rolled oats


semi processed

Some nutrients are lost (and/or added) due to the refining process
-White rice (polished brown rice)
-Corn syrup (corn- cornstarch-corn syrup)
Fortification = adding vitamins/minerals which adds nutrient density


ultra processed

Using semi-processed foods in combination to make a food product
Very low nutrient levels ( few vits., mins. Antioxidants, fiber)
High in salt, trans fats, sugar, calories. Ex anything w/ corn syrup, adding salt to fried chips, added sugars, etc.
Highly palatable
Heavily marketed


most common ultra processed foods

Sweetened drinks (pop, sweet teas, fruit drinks)
Processed snacks (cookies, cakes, doughnuts etc.)
High calorie level / bite compared to minimally processed food


what to consider when buying packaged foods?

How many steps away is it from its original form - things can be added to the food at each step
Ingredient List (less than 5 ingredients is best)


what influences our food choices?

Family - is the first influence on our food “choices” throughout the lifecycle.
The strongest influence while the child is still living at home
But Media is the strong second and surpasses family influence as you reach adulthood


how to brands use media for their product

Create an image around their product
Create brand identity
Sell their product


types of media

- timely, ‘local’, “older” adult audience
- target specific demographics, (age, gender etc.)
- stay longer in the household than papers
-target specific listener demographics
-Mass audience appeal (different age groups)
-High impact (watch the product being used/consumed)
-ads can be placed in specific shows that will be watched by their specific target group

Outdoor Ads
-Billboards, transit ads,
- reaches a broad audience

Direct Mail
- targets the audience in a specific location.
- usually in the form of a coupon
- sometimes a free sample
Cellphones & GPSs -Pop-up ads
- as you approach a business
- websites,pop up ads, banner ads
- social media sponsored posts
- Group coupons “groupon”
- used to promote products, communicate with consumers
- Reinforce ads in other mediums


what are other forms of media

-Product placement
- ads before previews
Business Sponsorship (Tim Horton’s Hockey)
- in store, on-line
- Packaging


what is limited information

Limited Information:
-Ads often give only the facts that will encourage you to buy, without the whole story.
- Examples? Frosted Flakes ‘they’re GRRRREAT’ and talk about vitamin d or fibre, but ignore high sugar contents.


what are positive images

Positive Images:
-An ad may use images of things that people feel positively—such as friendship or a good appearance.
- Examples?
-The advertiser’s hope is that the consumer will associate these good feelings with their product.


what is celebrity endorsement

Celebrity Endorsement:
- Some ads use celebrities, actors/ musicians/ athletes etc… to promote the product.
- Implying that if you use their product, you will be similarly popular/talented/attractive.
- The advertiser doesn’t tell you whether the celebrity actually uses the product


what is appeal to basic needs

Appeal to Basic Needs:
- Advertisers may focus on ways that their product meets a need for such things as nutrition for infants.
-Such advertising looks different depending on the age bracket that the product is aimed at.
- Selling cereal to kids…”Tastes Great!”
- Selling the same cereal to parents…”Source of fibre” (fruit loops, corn pops have recently added 3g of fibre/servings


what are scare tactic

Scare Tactics:
- Advertiser’s may play on people’s fears —of aging, or developing a medical condition etc…
- By claiming that their product will prevent or relieve symptoms or provide essential nutrients.
- Examples? Antioxidants, superfoods, activity, playing on people who don’t want to gain weight, age, get sick, etc.


what are false claims

- Ads may make claims that are not true in order to boost the consumer’s opinion of their product.
- Must use very general words and statements so that they will not be held legally liable should their product not work
- Words & phrases like “Most,” “Best,” “Good,” “Dramatically reduces the appearance of,” etc… are but a few examples.


what are infomercials

- Although the popularity of infomercials is not always consistent
- Some advertisers find that marketing their product in this manner is most effective for their targeted demographic.
- Infomercials situate the product as if it were a common-sense, practical solution to an everyday problem.
Ex: “Slap Chop”


1) Before a food additive is used, what must a manufacturer do?

File a food additive submission to Health Canada including information such as safety test results, how the additive will be used and benefits of the additive to the consumer.