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Flashcards in vitamins, minerals and water Deck (20)
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how many vitamins are there and what are their general function

13 Vitamins- general function

Vitamins are naturally occurring organic compounds that are essential to regulate body processes.
Measured in micrograms/milligrams, not grams
Very small quantities
Digestion - assist enzymes to release energy from macronutrients
Metabolizing nutrients
Producing & releasing energy
Maintaining tissue
Resisting infection


classification of vitamins

Classification of Vitamins for test - B and C are water soluble/taken every day/leave body if not used, fat soluble/can be stored/specialized/can become toxic

Vitamins can be classified as either
Water soluble, fat soluble
Water-soluble in water (B complex, C)
cannot be stored to any great extent
Must be consumed daily

Fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K)
Are dissolved in fat cells when they enter the body and essentially become part of the fat, can be stored
often have very specialized functions
Can build up to toxic levels
Toxicity : Some vitamins (A&D especially) can be toxic if consumed in large amounts due to supplements)


tell me about minerals

16 Minerals
Are inorganic elements, not living, do not come from living things (from the periodic table)
Are found in the soil and water, then absorbed by plants or eaten by animals.
Daily need for functioning of the organs, bones, tissue and immune system.
Macrominerals or major minerals - our bodies are more sensitive to these
100+ mg/day
Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium sulfur, sodium, potassium, chloride
Microminerals or trace minerals - don’t need to be consumed as much
>100 mg/day
iron, zinc, iodine, fluoride, selenium, copper, chromium, manganese, molybdenum


functions of minerals

Help enzymes complete chemical reactions
Become part of body (teeth, bones)
Help nerve functions and muscle contractions
Promote growth
Regulate acid balance
Maintain fluid balance


how to maintain vitamins and minerals in your food

Frozen, dried, canned fruits & vegs. -Can be more nutrient dense b/c they are processed quickly to retain vitamins/minerals
Do not soak fruits/vegs, in water
Wash and keep the peel on - vitamins are near the peel
Air & light destroys vits. (cut close to time of use)
Steam rather than boil (use the cooking water for soup, rice)


overview of water

Approximately 60-70% of body is water
- Depends on muscle: fat ratio
- Muscle is 75% water
- Fat is 20-35% water
Needs to be replaced every day
Nearly all of the life-sustaining, chemical reactions require an aqueous (watery) environment.
Maintain body temperature through evaporation, as in sweating.
An average adult needs two litres per day.


5 functions of water

Facilitates chemical reactions
Digestion/absorption, making amino acids, helps some enzymes function, water reacts with starch to break it down into glucose

Transports nutrients & waste
Is a solvent to dissolve substances in order to be absorbed in digestion
blood is 80% water
Facilitates waste removal from body

Lubricates/protects surfaces
saliva, tears, body joints, tissues & organs
shock absorber for brain and spinal cord

Regulates body temperature
by expanding blood vessels (release heat) at the skin surface or constricting them (conserve heat)

Keeps fluids in balance
electrolytes keep water equalized on inside of cells and outside of cells (sodium, potassium,, chloride)


how do we lose water?

Hot weather, high altitudes, dry climates, heated buildings, airplanes, etc.
Substances that increase urine production. Makes you pee and that causes the body to lose water
eg. caffeine, alcohol, certain soft drinks

Vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding, fever
Periods haha that sucks
Increased body heat due to movement and the environment must be released and cooled with sweat

body contains lower-than-normal levels of body fluids
the body starts to conserve water (little urine, little sweat)
Severe dehydration will result in cardiovascular collapse and death.


water toxicity

Yes, it’s possible! Results in dilution of important electrolytes (mineral salts) that may lead to erratic heart rhythm and death. Like internal drowning, water outbalances minerals and vitamins for cell functions. Heart gets confused and dies.


who needs more water?

- Infants
- Pregnant women
- Breast feeding women
- Older adult
- People on high protein diet
- While exercising
- Athletes


vitamin A

Vitamin A
(Fat soluble)
- Growth and tissue repair
- Immune system functions
- Vision

- Liver
- Eggs
- Dark green and yellow fruits and vegetables


vitamin D

Vitamin D
- Bone and tooth formation
- Immune functions
- Mineral balance

- Egg yolk
- Salmon
- Fortified milk


vitamin E

Vitamin E
- Antioxidant activity

- Wheat germ
- Nuts
- Dark green vegetables


vitamin K

Vitamin K
- Blood clotting
- Bone metabolism

- Green leafy vegetables
- Olive oil


vitamin b12

Vitamin B12
(Water soluble)
- Converting proteins and fats into energy
- Nervous system functions
- Formation of blood cells
- Cardiovascular health

- Lean beef
- Eggs
- Fish
- Dairy products


vitamin c

Vitamin C
- Collagen synthesis
- Helps iron absorption
- Amino acid metabolism

- Fruits
- vegetables



- Formation of red blood cells
- DNA synthesis
- Antioxidant activity

- Red meat
- Beans
- Green leafy vegetables


potassium, K?

- Fluid balance
- Normal body function
- Heart activity
- Muscle contraction
- Nervous system function
- Oranges
- Spinach
- Potatoes
- Bananas



- Maintain blood volume and pressure
- Transmission of nerve impulses
- Heart activity
- Muscle contraction
- Various internal functions

- Table salt
- Processed meats (e.g. bacon, sausage, ham)
- Canned soups and vegetables



- Formation of bones and teeth
- Supports blood clotting

- Dairy products
- Broccoli
- Spinach