unit 6 Flashcards Preview

critical care > unit 6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in unit 6 Deck (103)
Loading flashcards...
1

adjust the diameter of the blood vessels so the brain is protected

Changes in pressure

Changes in CO2

Autoregulation

2

with Increased Intracranial Pressure

what 3 things should you avoid

Avoid clustering of activities

Avoid valsalva situations

external stimuli

3

Cushing’s Triad (warning of herniation) includes what things

systolic BP: increased
diastolyc BP: decreased

bradycardia

respiration: decreased or irregular

4

This type of injury is associated with disruption of axons in the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, and brainstem.

This injury results in vasodilation and increased CBV that precipitates increased ICP. Signs and symptoms are variable, and prognosis is poor.

Diffuse Axonal Injury

5

Brain metabolism

Cerebral glucose < ___ mg/dL = confusion

70

6

with Intracranial Pressure Monitoring

Goal: PaO2 > ____mm Hg

80

7

skull fracture aginst the base of the brain

basilar skull fracture

8

when the CO2 goes up and the blood pressure goes down the blood vessels ______

dilate

9

never insert _____ with a skull fracture

NG tube

10

what 3 things can cause a dangerous increase in ICP

Increased Blood Volume
-Loss of Autoregulation
-Decreased Oxygenation
-Hypercapnia
-Obstruction

Increased Brain Volume
-Cerebral Edema

Increased Cerebrospinal Fluid
-Hydrocephalus

11

very high pressure within the skull that occurs when a part of the brain is squeezed across structures within the skull

Herniation

12

3 Components of ICP

brain tissue, blood, CSF fluid

13

increases serum osmoality and water in brain cells goes into intravasular system

Mannitol

14

to avoid hypertension with Increased Intracranial Pressure

it is comon to give

Nicardipine

15

when decorticate and decerebrate posturing are present that usually means ______ involvement

brain stem

16

____ is the most reliable factor to tell us about our patients neuro status

LOC

17

2 emergency measures when a patient has Cushing’s Triad

HOB 90 degrees

hyperventilate

18

Normal ICP range

0-15 mm Hg

19

Brain metabolism

Cerebral glucose < ___ mg/dL = damage

20

20

2 things to determine brain death

crainal nerve test

apnea testing

21

posture where The client internally flexes his wrists

decorticate

22

indications for Intracranial Pressure Monitoring

severe brain injury

23

signs of increased ICP

CO2:
WBC:
Coagulation profile:

CO2: increased
WBC: increased
Coagulation profile: increased

24

is the result of coup and contrecoup injuries accompanied by bruising and bleeding into brain tissue.

Contusion

25

If CPP is inadequate, _______ or ______ can occur

ischemia or infarction

26

with Increased Intracranial Pressure

for Sedation you might give what 2 things

Benzodiazepines
Analgesia

27

with Increased Intracranial Pressure

you might give what 2 things for Seizure prophylaxis

Phenytoin
Levetiracetam

28

when the CO2 goes down and the blood pressure goes up the blood vessels ______

constrict

29

Increased Intracranial Pressure

Goal: MAP ___ mm Hg
CPP: at least ____ mm Hg

70-90

70

30

Increased Intracranial Pressure

Goal: serum osmolality less than ___ mOsm/L.

320