Unit 6: Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 6: Learning Deck (54):
1

Stimulus

Anything that elicits a response

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Response

A reaction to a stimulus

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Unconditioned stimulus

A stimulus that automatically elicits a response, as meat causes salvation

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Unconditioned response

An automatic response to a particular natural stimulus, as salivation to meat

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Conditioned stimulus

A previous neutral stimulus that has been associated w a natural (or unconditioned) stimulus

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Conditioned response

A response to the stimulus that is brought about by learning
Ex: salivating at the word pickle

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John Watson

Suggested that at the human level, "deep emotions" are also just result of association and learning

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Little albert

11 month Little Albert exper. By john watson

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Stimulus generalization

Process in which a response spreads from one specific stimulus to other stimuli that resemble the original

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Extinction

Gradual loss of an association over time

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Spontaneous recovery

The sudden reappearance of an extinguished response

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Classical conditioning

Ivan pavlov's method of conditioning, in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus

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Spontaneous recovery

The sudden reappearance of an extinguished response

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Operant conditioning

Learning that takes place when a spontaneous behavior is reinforced or punished
(B.F Skinner)

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Reinforcement

Something that follows a response and STRENGTHENS the tendency to repeat response

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Primary reinforcement

Something necessary for psychological or physical survival that is used as reward

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Secondary reinforcement

Anything that comes to represent a primary reinforcer, such as $$$

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Positive reinforcement

Reinforcement that involves strengthening the tendency to repeat a response by following it w the addition of something pleasant

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Negative reinforcement

Reinforcement that involves strengthening a response by following it w the removal of something unpleasant

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Punishment

Process of weakening a response by following it with unpleasant consequences (weaken behavior)

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Shaping

Process of gradually refining a response by successively reinforcing closer approximations of it
Ex: dog learning to go thru hoop.,first going near hoop..stepping thru

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Chaining

Reinforcing the connection between the parts of a sequence
Ex: learning a specific type of dance
Learning diff parts then linking all parts for final product

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Generalization

A behavior that spreads from one solution to a similar one

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Discrimination

Learning to tell the difference between one event or object and another; reverse of generalization

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Extinction

When a response of generalization is no longer followed by reinforcement a person will gradually stop making that response

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Schedules of reinforcement

2 diff methods of reinforcing during operant cond.
(Continuous & partial)

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Continuous reinforcement

Reinforcement given each time a behavior occurs

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Partial reinforcement

Reinforcement not given each time an act is performed

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4 schedules

First word
fixed (set in stone)
Variable (changes)
Second word
Ratio (# of times)
Interval (time)

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Variable ratio

Reinforcement is given after a variable # of behaviors
Ex: slot machine in Casino

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Fixed Ratio

Reinforcement is given after a fixed # if behaviors
Ex: buy 10 coffees get one free

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Variable Interval

Reinforcement is given after a variable amount of time
Ex: fishing

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Fixed interval

Reinforcement is given after a fixed amount of time
Ex: paycheck

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Social learnin

Learning from the behavior of others
(Theorist is Albert Bandura)
*most behaviors acquired by observational learning

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Observational learning

Form of social learning in which the organism observes and imitated the behavior of others

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Bandura exper

Bobo dolls
No specific reinforcement needed!
Social learning can occur through exposure and intimidation alone

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Cognitive approach

An approach to the study of learning that emphasizes abstract mental processes and previous knowledge

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Latent learning

Learning that is not obvious but goes under the surface our thought processes also influence how desirable a particular stimulus is (reinforcement value)

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Cognitive Maps

(E.C Tolman said learning not so simple as stimulus-response)
A mental image of where one is located in space

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Encoding

-acquiring info
-info enters brain from series

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Storage

-"hang on" to info
Short and long term

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Short term memory

Limit on amount and time (5-9 things)
Rehearsal helps

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Long term memory

Implicit: actions you are not aware that you remember (walk, eat)
Explicit: info you are aware of recalling (facts, directions, memories)
Key to long term is having trick/device to help remember

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Mnemonic device

Something that helps you remember
Ex: PEMDAS

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Chunking

Grouping items to easily remember
7 is magic #

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Schema

Organized approach to solving a problem/answering question
Ex: planning list around route of grocery store

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Retrieval

Process of getting info back out when needed
-recall: short answer, fill in blank
-recognition: word banks, multiple choice

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(Amnesia) anterograde

When you cannot remember anything after the event that caused amnesia

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Retrograde amnesia

When you cannot remember anything from before the event

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Serial positioning effect

Remember things at the beginning and end

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Von restoroff effect

Remember things that stand out

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Misleading questions

Memory might be based on the way questions are asked

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Misinformation effect

Constructing memory based on information you get after an event

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Flashbulb memory

Emotionally significant event you remember clearly