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Flashcards in Unit 7 Deck (46)
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1

What are binary acids? How are they named?

Contain hydrogen and one of the more electronegative elements
Hydro-element-ic acid
Ex: Hydrofluoric acid HF

2

What are oxyacids? How are they named?

Contain hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element (usually a nonmetal)
Based off polyatomic ions
Polyatomic ion-ic acid

3

For the oxyacids, which prefixes and suffixes mean what?

Hypo____ous means 2 less oxygen
______ous means 1 less oxygen
______ic means most common form or first discovered
Per______ic means one more oxygen

4

How does polyatomic ion ending relate to the acid naming?

Poly Acid
Ate ic
Ite ous

5

According to Arrhenius, what do a base and an acid increase?

A base increases the [OH-]
An acid increases the [H+]

6

What is a strong acid/base and a weak acid/base

Strong acids and bases ionize/dissociate completely and are strong electrolytes

Weak acids and bases only ionize/dissociate partially and are weak electrolytes

7

What is the difference between an acid and a base?

Acids dissociate into hydronium (H3O+) and an element
Bases dissociate into hydroxide (OH-) and an element

8

What are the strong acids?

HCl
HBr
HI
HClO4
HClO3
H2SO4
HNO3

9

What are the strong bases?

LiOH
NaOH
KOH
RbOH
CsOH
Ca(OH)2
Sr(OH)2
Ba(OH)2

10

Does the solubility of a compound affect the strength of acids and particular bases?

Yes, if metal hydroxide is insoluble they won't produce OH-

11

What are neutral compounds?

Compounds that do not produce H+ or OH-

12

What is a Brønsted-Lowry acid?

A molecule or ion that is a proton donor (H+ is a proton)
Base is a proton acceptor

13

In the compound
HCl+NH3 --> NH4 + Cl
Which is the proton donor?
Which is the proton acceptor?

Proton donor- HCl
Proton acceptor- NH3

14

What is a monoprotic, diprotic, and tripotic acid?

Monoprotic- can donate 1 proton/molecule- HCl
Diprotic- can donate 2- H2SO4
Triprotic- can donate 3- H3PO4

15

How do monoprotic, diprotic, and triprotic acids affect concentration and how weak the acid is?

Monoprotic= lowest conc. and weakest acid
Diprotic= higher conc. and middle weak acid
Triprotic= greatest conc. and least weak acid

16

According to Gilbert Lewis, what is a Lewis acid?

An atom, molecule, or ion that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond
There is an electron pair acceptor (acid) and an electron pair donor (base)

17

What is a conjugate base and a conjugate acid?
Name the base, acid, conjugate base, and conjugate acid for this reaction
NH3 + H2O -> NH4 + OH

When an acids donates a proton(H+), it creates a conjugate base, this is what's left over after losing a proton
NH3- base
H2O- acid
NH4- conjugate acid
OH- conjugate base

18

The stronger the acid or base, the _________ the conjugate acid or base will be

Weaker

19

What does amphoteric mean?

This is what water is called when it can act as either an acid or a base

20

What does amphiprotic mean?

Means that it can donate or accept H+
All Amphiprotic substances are amphoteric (not vice versa tho)

21

What is neutralization? What is the general neutralization equation?

It involves the reaction of hydronium and hydroxide ions to form water and a salted

Acid + metal -> salt + hydrogen

22

When writing a neutralization equation what must be done in the overall ionic equation?

Use hydronium (H3O+) instead of H and double water

23

Can water ionize on its own? Wrote the equation

Yes it can
H2O + H2O -> H3O + OH

24

What are the concentrations of [H3O+] and [OH-] at room temp?

Both are 1.0 x 10^-7

25

As [H30+] concentration increases, the concentration of [OH-] ___________.

Decreases

26

What is the ionization constant of water? What's the equation?

Kw=ionization constant
Kw= [H3O+][OH-] = 1.0x10^-14 M^2 (at 25C)

27

What does pH stand for? Mathematically what does p mean?

Potential power of hydrogen
P means -log10

28

What does pH equal?

-log [H3O+]

29

What does pOH equal?

-log [OH-]

30

What is pH below 7, at 7, and above 7 mean?

Below 7- acidic
At 7- neutral
Above 7- basic