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Flashcards in Unit Three Deck (27):

Berlin Conference


-A meeting between European nations to create rules on how to peacefully divide Africa among them for colonization.

- Convened by Portugal but led by German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck

-The Berlin Conference did not initiate European colonization of Africa, but it did legitimate and formalize the process.

-In addition, it sparked new interest in Africa. Following the close of the conference, European powers expanded their claims in Africa such that by 1900, European states had claimed nearly 90 percent of African territory.


King Leopold II

- King of Belgium

-Took about half of the Congo Free State into his private ownership or gave it to companies granted concessions in return for railroad development;

- Huge humanitarian violations to Congolese people and in 1908 an international crusade of humanitarian agencies pressured Leopold to turn his private domain in the Congo over to the Belgian government


Simon Bolivar

Simon Bolivar led independence movements in South America during the 18th century.

He led countries like Gran Colombia (today Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador) to their independence from Spanish rule, and essentially set in motion the full independence of modern South American countries.


Boer War

- Discover of diamond and gold deposited in S. Africa made the region important strategically & economically, and the ongoing conflict btwn the British & the Boers led to the Boer War of 1899


East India Company

- Formed in 1600 by a group of London merchants

- Queen Elizabeth I granted it a monopoly of English commerce with ‘the East’

- At its height, it controlled half the world’s trade

- Controlled many structures and became the official arm of the government.

-Financed tea trade with illegal opium exports to China. Chinese opposition to this led to the Opium War which resulted in Chinese defeat and expanded Britain's trading privileges


Laissez Faire

-Laissez-faire was a government system that meant no interference from the government.

-Free market economy optimized economic growth.


Opium War

Western countries wanted access to Chinese market but Chinese self-sufficient and Manchu dynasty discouraged Western trade;
- Brit created demand for opium in China and defended it as free trade


Emancipation Proclamation

-The Emancipation Proclamation is a cornerstone document in the history of the United States.

- Issued by Abraham Lincoln

-Freed the slaves, authorized the creation of Black military units and changed the war into a struggle against slavery

-Had no real effect on slavery abolition at the time, was more politically symbolic but changed the meaning of the Civil War.


Otto von Bismarck

-Conservative aristocrat/supporter of Prussian monarchy against the liberal nationalists 1848

-Agent of German unification

-Took step of proposing a reorganization of the German confederation, creation of national assembly


John Stuart Mill

- English philosopher

-Utilitarian who believed in the greatest happiness for the greatest number

- Began his campaign against wife-beating which resulted in the publishing of his powerful and influential book 'The Subjection of Women'


Multiplier Effect

- Refers to the cycle of consumer demand, investment and innovations that drove the Industrial Revolution.

-Cycle works as follows:
1. increased consumer demand prompts entrepreneurs to invest in machines to speed up production, and thereby increase profit
2. Faster production in one area of manufacturing prompts investment in another area.
3. Profits from increase production used to invest further innovations and inventions

- Multiplier effect caused Industrial Revolution to gather momentum and prompt new technologies.


Thomas Malthus

- Economist who famously developed the theory of population growth.

- Came up with the Malthusian Equilibrium:

-As population increases, the need for resources increases.
-Results in degradation of resources which leads to an increase in death.

-This leads to a stable population.


Industrial Revolution: Causes & Ramifications




- Emphasized rationalism, importance of individual happiness (individualism)
- Role of state is to protect the freedom and rights of the individual
-Believed that human rights would be lost if gov. intervened
- Generally reflected views of middle class



-Communism is a socialist government system in which the means of production are commonly owned, and which has no state, money, or social classes

- Forms of government based on Marx's ideas that were established in Russia, China, and other countries in the 20th century.

-Communism was a major force in world politics for most of the 20th century

-Today communism is the official form of government in only a handful of countries.



- Fascism is a form of government, in which the country is considered more important than any one person, group, liberty, or provision.

-Individuals have limited freedom under fascist rule.

- Benito Mussolini

-Actions of fascist leaders led to WWII

- Influenced neofascism.


German Unification

-Prior to unification, divided into 38 independent states

-Many Germans wanted a nation that was united, powerful, and influential.

- Of all the German states, Prussia was the most powerful, dominating the other, smaller states.

-The person with the most power was Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck, shown here.

- It was Bismarck who strengthened German unity and power by calling on the nationalistic tendencies of the German people.

-Bismarck was able to unite Germany through his policy of Realpolitik, or realistic politics, which is a Machiavellian "end justifies the means" approach to strengthening and uniting Germany.

Bismarck was a strong proponent of "Blood and Iron". Blood represented the sacrifices the German people would have to make in achieving the goal of unification. A culture of militarism, or the glorification of the military, was created by the crafty Bismarck. This played out in a series of wars against the Austrians and the French. Iron represented the need to industrialize. Bismarck saw that in order to be a world power, Germany would have to catch up with much of the rest of Europe in the areas of technology and factory production. In 1871, Bismarck succeeded in placing Wilhelm on the throne of a unified Germany. German power achieved through nationalism would foster a period of imperialization and would set the stage for the outbreak of World War I.


Women's Rights: Struggles & Victories

- Women increasingly dissatisfied with subordinate role

- Feminist movements across Europe: confronted inequality in church, state, home -- everywhere the vote was an obvious symbol of inequality.

- Suffragette movements grew in countries


Leisure Time

-Differences in disposable income and taste produced two cultures

-Affluent elite of “classes” – other was called “masses”

-Popular institutions: art galleries, museums, libraries, theatres, operas, concert halls, orchestras…

-Technological innovations: printing/publishing – books cheaper

-Leisure: short travels on railway; travel agent Thomas Cook
Entertainment: growth of mass-circulation of tabloids


New Imperialism






Revolutions of 1848: Italy

- Series of democratic revolts against monarchies of Europe

- Began in Sicily, Itality in 1848

-Italy was broken into smaller states controlled by Austrian Empire

-Started by Italian nationalists who wanted independence from Austrian rule

-These nationalists were at first successful in establishing an independent republic but this only lasted 6 months before the Bourbon rulers regained control


Beginning Stages of WWI



Italian Unification

- Italy in 1861 was divided into independent states like Germany

- Some Italian leaders began calling for nationalism with the goal of bringing Italy together into a sovereign nation-state with autonomous rule.

The most famous of Italian nationalistic leaders were Count Camilo Cavour, Guiseppe Garibaldi, and Guiseppe Mazzini.

-Mazzini was instrumental in being the "soul" of Italian nationalism. He also established the secret society known as Young Italy, an organization devoted to a united Italy

- Garibaldi was considered to be the "sword" of Italian nationalism. His band of Red Shirts conquered forces opposed to unification and forced southern Italy into a cohesive political unit.

- Cavour "brain" in his role as a skilled diplomat. Cavour successfully received aid from France in a war against the Austrians and eventually put Victor Emmanuel II on the throne of a completely united Italian nation-state in 1861.


Revolutions of 1848: February Revolution

- Began after King Louis Philippe's 'July Monarchy' government suspended the people's right to participate in political banquets

-Anger over the policy peaked around Feb 22-23 as Parisians put on demonstrations, erected barricades and fought against royal authorities

- Fearful of the growing unrest, King Philippe abdicated the throne

-A few days later, the Second French Republic was proclaimed


Revolutions of 1848: March Revolution

- Like Italy, Germany consisted of 39 separate states under German Confederation

- Stemmed from the desire for a unified Germany

- Middle and working class people revolted against the structure of the German Confederation and demanded more political liberalization, especially freedom from censorship

-Failed to unify Germany in part bc of a split btwn the working class and middle class


Revolutions of 1848:

- Series of democratic revolts against the monarchies of Europe

- Believed over 50 countries experienced revolution

- Although some minor reforms were achieved in certain cases, the revolutions were generally not a success