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1

The theory that relates best with Erving Goffman is

Dramaturgy

2

Dramaturgy

the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance

3

Performance Ethnography

role of performance to sustain social communities and express their values

4

Erving Goffman's Main Idea

Social interactions of everyday life can be understood as performance

5

Presentation of the Self

Portraying an image to society

6

Impression Management

Portray self in a way that creates desired impression.

7

What is the role of impression management

successful socially appropriate social interactions

8

3 critiques of Dramaturgy

1) Lack of Clarity
2) Too Speculative
3) Not a Coherent Theory

9

Performance Ethnography studies the

symbolic behaviors/activities that create and express cultural values

10

Research method of Performance Ethnography

Field based where researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject, face to face and personalized

11

Performance Ethnography requires a lot of detail to be gathered in order to identify a pattern of behaviour, meaning that it is

inductive

12

Study subjects in Performance Ethnography can expand on research findings making it

Dialogic

13

What is thin description?

Raw observances that do not describe meaning to underlying behaviors

14

What is thick description?

in depth understanding to the meanings and motivations behind underlying specific actions

15

Hermeneutics

refers to the idea that understanding of the text as a whole is established by individual parts and one's understanding of each individual part as reference to the whole.

16

Relational Dialectics suggest

people communicate to manage unavoidable tensions in relationships

17

Social Exchange Theory suggests

We communicate and build relationships to gain rewards and minimize costs

18

The two theorists most linked with Dialectical Theory are...

Leslie Baxter and Barbara Montgomery

19

How is tension in Relational Dialectics produced?

opposing or contradictory forces that people experience in their relationships

20

What is the Hegelian resolution of differences

Thesis + Antithesis = Synthesis

21

What is Bakhtin's Dialectic

No resolution, just occasional moments of respite. Thesis + Antithesis = Tension

22

What are the 3 main categories of Tensions

Integration/Separation
Stability/Change
Expression/Privacy

23

Internal/External of Integration/Separation

Connection/Autonomy and Inclusion/Seclusion

24

Internal/External of Stability/Change

Predictability/Novelty and Convention/Uniqueness

25

Internal/External of Expression/Privacy

Openness/Closedness and Revelation/Concealment

26

Do Montgomery and Baxter think that tension produces problem?

No, relationships need the interplay of differences, it is how people and relationships grow and not boring

27

4 ways people manage tension in relationships

Selection
Separation
Neutralization
Reframing

28

Critiques on Relations Dialectic

1) People tend to like this theory
2) only 3 types of dialectics?

29

Main idea of Social Exchange Theory

assumes that people are motivated by the quest to maximize personal rewards

30

3 claims by SET

people are rational, they build relationships to gain rewards, and people most value relationships that require the least effort

31

Cost-Benefit Analysis

Outcome = Reward - Cost

32

What is Comparison Level?

Expectations for a current relationship based on past or observable experiences

33

Comparison Level of Alternatives

The stability of a current relationship based on the perceived value of alternatives to the relationship ie. not being in one

34

What is the role of equity and inequity in relationships?

a relationship will continue or dissolve depending on the perceived inequity/equity of the relationship

35

4 critiques of SET

1) Low Heuristic Value
2) Not testable
3) Inappropriate for people
4) Not supported by research

36

In Canada, social groups are organized along lines of (6)

a. Race and Ethnicity
b. Class and Income
c. Gender
d. Sexuality
e. Age
f. Ability

37

Key ideas in standpoint theory

social, material and symbolic circumstances of a social group shape the standpoint of members of that group

38

Why do groups in positions of lesser power in society have more accurate or complete view of social life than groups with more power in society

1) security: understand how the status quo operates
2) no reason to maintain social hierarchy because subjugated groups are not served by it

39

Partial Perspective

each individual vantage point only provides a partial understanding of the social whole

40

Outsider Within

double consciousness: a person acquires more accurate knowledge as a part of both a normal and marginalized social position

41

Donna Haraway questioned the objectivity of knowledge in that...

knowledge is never "pure" or objective because it is shaped by social circumstances

42

Different standpoints produce different

knowledge

43

Accuracy

the ability to see more than what is available to ones own specific social location

44

Critique of Standpoint Theory

Privileges marginalized standpoints and obscures human diversity therefore reifies stereotypes

45

Suzanne Langer is most associated with what theory?

Speech communities

46

Speech Communities in a nutshell

different social groups teach member distinct styles of communication that people outside that community do not understand

47

Speech Code

a system of communicating apart from outsiders

48

Communication Rules

regular patterns in the communication used by particular groups that are socially constructed

49

Why are misunderstandings likely to occur according to speech communities?

members of different social groups are socialized to have different styles of communication so when people intercommunicate, misunderstanding is likely

50

Why do people code switch?

to fit in, to get something, to be private or convey a thought