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Flashcards in Upper GI Presentations Deck (80):
1

What is a Mallory-Weiss tear?

A longitdinal tear in the mucosa around the gastro-oesophageal junction

2

What generally causes a Mallory-Weiss tear to bleed?

Increased abdominal pressure, usually due to vomiting

3

What is the typical presentation of a Mallory-Weiss tear?

Small amounts of haematemesis after several episodes of vomiting (most commonly due to alcohol)

4

What is the management for a Mallory-Weiss tear?

Usually conservative, as the bleeding will generally resolve

5

What is a hiatus hernia?

When the proximal stomach herniates through the diaphragmatic hiatus

6

What two kings of hiatus hernia can you get?

Sliding hernia (80%) = Gastroesophageal junction slides up into the chest
Rolling hernia (20%) = Gastroesophageal junction remains in abdomen, portion of stomach herniates into the chest

7

What BMI is associated with hiatus hernias?

Over 30 (obesity)

8

What is the best diagnostic test for a hiatus hernia?

Barium swallow

9

What is the treatment for a hiatus hernia?

H2 antagonists, alginates, antacids, proton pump inhibitors and pro kinetic drugs = relieve reflux symptoms
Surgery = symptoms are intractable or complications develop

10

What are the risk factors for GORD?

Hiatus hernia
Smoking
Alcohol
Pregnancy
Systemic sclerosis
Drugs (e.g. nitrates, anticholinergics)
Obesity
Age

11

What happens to the lower oesophageal sphincter tone in GORD?

It is decreased

12

What condition can result from long term GORD?

Barrett's Oesophagus

13

Which change occurs in the epithelium in Barrett's Oesophagus?

Metaplastic change from squamous to columnar epithelium

14

How do nitrates affect the symptoms of GORD?

Usually aggravate symptoms

15

Which value is likely to be raised in an Upper GI beed?

Serum urea
Due to metabolism of amino acids from protein rich blood contents

16

Why is there a change in lower oesophageal tone in GORD?

Usually due to increased intra-abdominal pressure

17

What are the symptoms of GORD?

Heartburn (particularly when lying down, stooping, straining or after meals)
Belching
Acid or bile regurgitation
Waterbrash (mouth fills with water)
Odynophagia
Nocturnal asthma
Chronic cough
Laryngitis
Sinusitis

18

What are the potential complications of GORD?

Oesophagitis
Ulcers
Benign strictures
Iron deficiency
Metaplastic change (Barrett's Oesophagus)

19

How is damage to the oesophagus by GORD graded?

Grade 1 = erosions less than 5mm
Grade 2 = erosions more than 5mm
Grade 3 = less than 75% of lower oesophagus involved
Grade 4 = more than 75% of lower oesophagus involved

20

Which medications can be used to treat GORD?

Antacids
H2 receptor antagonists
Proton Pump Inhibitors

21

How do antacids help in GORD?

Relieve reflux by coating the lower oesophageal lining
Only relieve symptoms, do not prevent complications

22

How do H2 receptor antagonists help in GORD?

Cause acid suppression
Symptoms can worsen on stopping medication

23

How do PPIs help in GORD?

Effective at both reducing acid secretion and preventing acid related damage
Timing is important for these drugs

24

When might surgery be considered for GORD, and what are the aims of surgery?

Ongoing symptoms despite medication, or poor tolerance to medication
Keyhole laparoscopic surgery to physically repair the damaged sphincter

25

In which type of hiatus hernia is acid reflux more common?

Sliding hiatus hernia

26

What are the symptoms of achalasia?

Dysphagia
Regurgitation
Substernal cramps
Weight loss

27

What caused achalasia?

Lower oesophageal sphincter fails to relax
Food cannot easily enter the stomach and so oesophagus fills with food
usually accompanied by poor oesophageal motility

28

How is achalasia diagnosed?

Barium swallow = shows dilated tapering oesophagus

29

How is achalasia treated?

Endoscopic balloon dilatation
Heller's cardiomyotomy
Botox injections for a non-invasive treatment

30

What are the two types of oesophageal cancer?

Adenocarcinoma (reflux->Barret's)
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (smoking and alcohol)

31

What types of gastric cancer can occur?

Adenocarcinoma (H.pylori, environmental)
Lymphoma
GISTs (cancers of muscle layer)

32

How might oesophageal cancer present?

Dysphagia
Odynophagia
Upper GI haemorrhage
Anaemia
Weight loss

33

How might gastric cancer present?

Subtle, non specific symptoms
Dyspepsia
Upper GI haemorrhage
Anaemia
Weight loss
Abdominal mass
Anorexia/early satiety
Vomiting

34

How is oesophago-gastric caner diagnosed?

Upper GI endoscopy
(also colonoscopy if presenting symptom is anaemia)

35

How do you stage oesophageal cancer?

CT thorax/abdomen
CT/PET, EUS, Laparoscopy
Search hard for metastatic disease

36

What are the palliative options for oesophageal cancer and pros/cons?

Stenting - BEST
Radiotherapy - can shrink tumour and aid swallowing without need for stent
Chemotherapy - almost no benefit

37

What are the potentially curative options for oesophageal cancer?

Surgery with or without NAC
Radical chemoradiotherapy

38

How do you stage gastric cancer?

CT thorax/abdomen
Laparoscopy
Search hard for metastatic disease

39

What are the palliative options for gastric cancer and pros/cons?

Radiotherapy - generally reserved for bleeding
Chemotherapy - almost no benefit

40

What are the potentially curative options for gastric cancer?

Surgery with or without NAC

41

What is the prognosis for oesophageal cancer?

Dismal
11% 5 year survival, most die within 1 year

42

What are the adverse prognostic factors for oesophageal cancer?

Oesophageal obstruction
Tumour longer than 5cm
Metastatic disease

43

What is the prognosis for gastric cancer?

15% 5 year survival

44

What are the adverse prognostic factors for gastric cancer?

Metastatic disease
Short history
Advanced age
Proximal lesion
Locally advanced lesion
Superficial gross appearance

45

What is the definition of dyspepsia?

Epigastric pain or burning
Postprandial fullness
Early satiety

46

What are the organic causes of dyspepsia?

Peptic ulcer disease
Drugs (NSAIDs, COX2 inhibitors)
Gastric cancer

47

What are the function causes of dypepsia?

Idiopathic
No evidence of causative structural disease
Accounted with other functional gut disorders (IBS etc)

48

What might be found on examination of uncomplicated dyspepsia?

Epigastric tenderness only

49

What might be found on examination of complicated dyspepsia?

Cachexia
Mass
Evidence gastric outflow obstruction
Peritonism

50

What is the management of dyspepsia in the absence of alarm symptoms?

Check H.pylori status
Eradicate if infected
If negative, treat with acid inhibition as needed

51

What are the causes and risk factors for peptic ulceration?

H. Pylori
NSAIDs
Steroids
Aspirin
Zollinger Ellison Syndrome
Stress

52

What is the common presentation of peptic ulcer disease?

Epigastric pain
Usually occurring at night or before meals
Relieved by drinking a glass of milk

53

How are peptic ulcers diagnosed?

Endoscopy

54

What is the treatment for H.Pylori +ve peptic ulcers?

PPI
Amoxicillin or metronidazole and clarythromycin for 1 week

55

What is the treatment for H.Pyori -ve peptic ulcers?

H2 receptor antagonist
PPI

56

What is H.Pylori and how is it spread?

Gram negative microaerophilic flagellated bacillus
Oral-Oral/faecal oral spread
Usually acquired in infancy, with complications arising after in life

57

What are the consequences of H.Pylori infection?

Majority = No pathology
20-40% = Peptic ulcer disease
1% =Gastric cancers

58

How are H.Pylori and duodenal ulcers connected?

Increase in gastrin release leads to increased acid secretion
This increases duodenal acid load, causing gastric metaplasia, H.Pylori colonisation and ulceration

59

How is H.Pylori infection diagnosed?

Gastric biopsy
Urease breath test
Faecal antigen test
Serology (less accurate in older patients)

60

What are the complications of peptic ulcer disease?

Anaemia
Bleeding
Perforation
Gastric outlet/duodenal obstruction

61

What is the follow up for duodenal ulcers?

None needed if uncomplicated
Only follow up with ongoing symptoms

62

What is the follow up for gastric ulcers?

Endoscopy at 6/8 weeks
Ensure healing and no malignancy

63

What is the most likely cause of haematemesis in a jaundiced patient?

Oesophageal varices
(due to portal hypertension)

64

What is the most likely cause of haematemesis in a young patient with a sore knee?

Peptic ulcer
(due to NSAIDs)

65

What is the most likely cause of haematemesis in a patient with a two month history of increasing dysphagia?

Oesophageal cancer

66

Which factors indicate a severe upper GI bleed?

Low BP
Tachycardia
Postural hypotension

67

What is the initial management of an upper GI bleed?

Resuscitation:
Airway protection
Oxygen
IV access
Fluids
HDU
Senior review

68

What drugs should you consider giving someone with an upper GI bleed?

IV terlipressin = Management of portal hypertension
IV septrin = Prophylactic antibiotics

69

What fluids should be given to someone with an upper GI bleed?

Cross matched blood
(may give gelofusine or O -ve in the meantime if urgent)

70

How do you treat an upper GI bleed due to oesophageal varices?

Endoscopic banding

71

If endoscopy fails to treat bleeding oesophageal varices, what would be done next?

C Sengstaken Blakemore Tube

72

How does eating affect gastric pain caused by peptic ulcers?

Duodenal = Pain relieved by eating
Gastric = Pain worsened by eating

73

What is the more likely cause of dysphagia to solids and liquids from the start?

Motility disorder
Achalasia, CNS or pharyngeal causes

74

What is the more likely cause of worsening dysphagia (e.g. solids then liquids)?

Stricture - benign or malignant

75

What is the more likely cause of dysphagia where there is difficulty in making the swallowing movement?

Bulbar palsy, especially if the patient coughs on swallowing

76

What are the more likely causes of dysphagia if there is accompanying odynophagia?

Cancer
Oesophageal ulcer - benign or malignant
Candida
Spasm

77

What is the more likely cause of intermittent dysphagia?

Oesophageal spasm

78

What is the more likely cause of constant and worsening dysphagia?

Malignant stricture

79

What is the more likely cause of dysphagia where the neck bulges or gurgles on drinking?

Pharyngeal pouch

80

What are the alarm symptoms associated with dyspepsia and peptic ulcer disease?

Anaemia
Loss of weight
Anorexia
Recent onset or progressive symptoms
Melaena/haematemesis
Swallowing difficulty