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Flashcards in Upper GI Presentations Deck (80)
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1

What is a Mallory-Weiss tear?

A longitdinal tear in the mucosa around the gastro-oesophageal junction

2

What generally causes a Mallory-Weiss tear to bleed?

Increased abdominal pressure, usually due to vomiting

3

What is the typical presentation of a Mallory-Weiss tear?

Small amounts of haematemesis after several episodes of vomiting (most commonly due to alcohol)

4

What is the management for a Mallory-Weiss tear?

Usually conservative, as the bleeding will generally resolve

5

What is a hiatus hernia?

When the proximal stomach herniates through the diaphragmatic hiatus

6

What two kings of hiatus hernia can you get?

Sliding hernia (80%) = Gastroesophageal junction slides up into the chest
Rolling hernia (20%) = Gastroesophageal junction remains in abdomen, portion of stomach herniates into the chest

7

What BMI is associated with hiatus hernias?

Over 30 (obesity)

8

What is the best diagnostic test for a hiatus hernia?

Barium swallow

9

What is the treatment for a hiatus hernia?

H2 antagonists, alginates, antacids, proton pump inhibitors and pro kinetic drugs = relieve reflux symptoms
Surgery = symptoms are intractable or complications develop

10

What are the risk factors for GORD?

Hiatus hernia
Smoking
Alcohol
Pregnancy
Systemic sclerosis
Drugs (e.g. nitrates, anticholinergics)
Obesity
Age

11

What happens to the lower oesophageal sphincter tone in GORD?

It is decreased

12

What condition can result from long term GORD?

Barrett's Oesophagus

13

Which change occurs in the epithelium in Barrett's Oesophagus?

Metaplastic change from squamous to columnar epithelium

14

How do nitrates affect the symptoms of GORD?

Usually aggravate symptoms

15

Which value is likely to be raised in an Upper GI beed?

Serum urea
Due to metabolism of amino acids from protein rich blood contents

16

Why is there a change in lower oesophageal tone in GORD?

Usually due to increased intra-abdominal pressure

17

What are the symptoms of GORD?

Heartburn (particularly when lying down, stooping, straining or after meals)
Belching
Acid or bile regurgitation
Waterbrash (mouth fills with water)
Odynophagia
Nocturnal asthma
Chronic cough
Laryngitis
Sinusitis

18

What are the potential complications of GORD?

Oesophagitis
Ulcers
Benign strictures
Iron deficiency
Metaplastic change (Barrett's Oesophagus)

19

How is damage to the oesophagus by GORD graded?

Grade 1 = erosions less than 5mm
Grade 2 = erosions more than 5mm
Grade 3 = less than 75% of lower oesophagus involved
Grade 4 = more than 75% of lower oesophagus involved

20

Which medications can be used to treat GORD?

Antacids
H2 receptor antagonists
Proton Pump Inhibitors

21

How do antacids help in GORD?

Relieve reflux by coating the lower oesophageal lining
Only relieve symptoms, do not prevent complications

22

How do H2 receptor antagonists help in GORD?

Cause acid suppression
Symptoms can worsen on stopping medication

23

How do PPIs help in GORD?

Effective at both reducing acid secretion and preventing acid related damage
Timing is important for these drugs

24

When might surgery be considered for GORD, and what are the aims of surgery?

Ongoing symptoms despite medication, or poor tolerance to medication
Keyhole laparoscopic surgery to physically repair the damaged sphincter

25

In which type of hiatus hernia is acid reflux more common?

Sliding hiatus hernia

26

What are the symptoms of achalasia?

Dysphagia
Regurgitation
Substernal cramps
Weight loss

27

What caused achalasia?

Lower oesophageal sphincter fails to relax
Food cannot easily enter the stomach and so oesophagus fills with food
usually accompanied by poor oesophageal motility

28

How is achalasia diagnosed?

Barium swallow = shows dilated tapering oesophagus

29

How is achalasia treated?

Endoscopic balloon dilatation
Heller's cardiomyotomy
Botox injections for a non-invasive treatment

30

What are the two types of oesophageal cancer?

Adenocarcinoma (reflux->Barret's)
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (smoking and alcohol)