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Year 3 - Anatomy, Muscoskeletal > Upper limb lectures > Flashcards

Flashcards in Upper limb lectures Deck (101)
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1

Anterior wall of axilla is formed by?

> Pectoralis major muscles
> Pectoralis minor muscle

2

Posterior wall of axilla is formed by?

Latissimus dorsi muscle

3

Medial wall of axilla is formed by?

> The thoracic wall
> Serratus anterior muscle

4

Lateral wall of axilla is formed by?

Intertubercular groove of the humerus

5

The axillary artery is a continuation of which artery?

Subclavian artery

6

At which anatomical point does the axillary artery begin?

Outer border of the 1st rib

7

The axillary artery begins beyond the axilla as which vessel?

The brachial artery

8

At which anatomical position does the brachial artery begin?

The lower border of the teres major

9

If there is profuse bleeding of the upper limb what could be done?

Compression of the axillary artery

10

If there is enlargement of the axillary lymph nodes what does this indicate?

An infection of the upper limb

Or indication of breast cancer in the lateral quadrant of the breast

11

What is the brachial plexus?

A major network of nerves which innervate the upper limb

12

Which nerves make up the brachial plexus?

The ventral rami of C5, C6, C7, C8 and T1

13

Which nerve roots form the upper trunk of the brachial plexus?

C5 and C6

14

Which nerve roots form the middle trunk of the brachial plexus?

C7

15

Which nerve roots form the inferior trunk of the brachial plexus?

C8 and T1

16

What is Erb's point and what is its clinical significance?

> A landmark of the brachial plexus on the upper trunk.

> Located about 1 inch (2.5 cm) above the clavicle at about the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. The point is the location of an angle between the posterolateral border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the clavicle.

> Electrical stimulation at Erb's point causes contractions of the biceps, deltoid, and other arm muscles.

17

Nerve network of the upper limb overview?

Roots --> Trunks --> Divisions -- > Cords --> Terminal branches

18

What can cause Erb's palsy?

Undue seperation (hyper-extension) of the head from the shoulder:
> Anaesthesia
> Fall on shoulder
> Birth injury

19

How would an individual present with Erb's Palsy?

"Waiter's tip appearance":
> Upper limb medially rotated
> Flexed wrist

20

Which nerves are affected in Erb's palsy?

Ventral nerve roots C5, C6:
> Suprascapular nerve
> Musculocutaneous nerve
> Axillary nerv

21

Which muscle are affected in Erb's palsy?

Atrophy of :
> Deltoid muscle
> Biceps brachii muscle
> Brachialis muscle

22

Injury to the lower trunk of the brachial plexus is called?

Klumpke's palsy

23

Klumpke's palsy - Muscles affected?

> Intrinsic muscles of the hand
> Ulnar flexors of the wrist and fingers

24

Klumpke's palsy - Cause?

Undue abduction of the arm:
> Hanging injury

25

Klumpke's palsy - Clinical presentation?

“claw hand,” in which:
> The forearm is supinated

> The metacarpophalangeal joints are hyperextended

> The fingers are flexed

26

In the upper limb the Lateral cord is produced from?

1) Superior trunk (C5, C6)
2) Middle trunk (C7)

27

In the upper limb the posterior cord is produced from?

1) Superior trunk (C5, C6)
2) Middle trunk (C7)
3) Inferior trunk (C8, T1)

28

In the upper limb the medial cord is produced from?

Inferior trunk (C8, T1)

29

Major branches of the brachial plexus?

1) Musculocutaneous nerve
2) Axillary nerve
3) Radial nerve
4) Median nerve
5) Ulnar nerve

30

Action of the musculocutaneous nerve?

The motor fibers innervate:
> Biceps brachii muscle
> Coracobrachialis muscle
> Brachialis muscle

Sensory terminal branch (Lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm), it innervates the lateral surface of the forearm.