Flashcards in Urban Environments Deck (38)
The Burgess and Hoyt model were put together....
To model how a 'typical' city is laid out
3 limits to the Burgess model
1. The model is quite old and was developed before mass car ownership
2. New working and housing trends have emerged, people now live and work outside the city, something not reflected by the model
3. Every city is different - there is no 'typical' one
Describe the Burgess model....
Round, a complete circle, surrounding the CBD
The (urban) Hoyt model is....
A modification of the burgess model.
Base of the burgess model....
A category system revolving around how high value land is closer to the CBD and the competition for land meaning buildings of high rise and density
The bid rent theory....
Describes price and demand for real estate, and how that changes depending on distance from a city's CBD. Also judges how retails boosts profitability.
Difference between the Hoyt and Burgess model
Rather than being round, the Hoyt model describes how an area expands out of the CBD following a road or railway
What is the LEDC model?
The LEDC model is similar to the other urban models however it models a 'typical' LEDC city
Categories of the Hoyt and Burgess models
CBD, Factories/Industry, WC housing, MC housing, Commuter zone (Burgess), HC housing (Hoyt)
Category in the LEDC model - poor quality, self built housing
Category in the LEDC model - informal housing, improvement over time, more permanent
Categories in the LEDC model
Favelas, Periferia, CBD, Industry, High-cost housing
Shape of LEDC model
Similar to the Hoyt model
Difference between LEDC and MEDC cities
In LEDCs the poorest housing is closest to the CBD, where high quality housing is for MEDCs
A similarity between LEDC and MEDC cities
Both of them have a CBD
The Hoyt model is also named
The sector model
The burgess model is also named
The concentric zone model
The Mann Model....
Combines both the Hoyt and Burgess models
What is different about the Mann model?
It describes the age of the housing, as well as more in depth tiers (upper MC and lower MC)
What is an edge city?
A modern suburban area that acts as a CBD. It contains malls, businesses, jobs, transport, and entertainment
The Ullman and Harris model is also named
The multi nuclei theory
What is different about the Ullman and Harris model?
Different shape, shows that cities are becoming less dependent on CBDs, 9 sectors each with an individual purpose
Sectors of the Ullman and Harris model
CBD, Light manufacturing, LC homes, MC homes, UC homes, Heavy manufacturing, Outlying BD, Residential suburb, Industrial suburb
Edge cities are also known as
A 'suburban core’ or a ‘mini city’
Where are edge cities located?
In the suburbs of a larger city. For example Croydon or Canary Wharf
primary function ie: centre of education, centre of administration, centre of trade or commerce. Cities have more functions as they grow larger
What settlement is there for
Sphere of influence
influence is based on cultural, economic, cultural, or political
The range comes with different factors - max someone wants to travel from one place to another, can be based on transport facilities. For specialist services you will travel further. An airport having international flights - people will travel further for that
concept, based around the idea of the influence
System of categorising importance of a country. They look for strong businesses and strong economy. Terms used aren't legally bound so they don't mean a lot officially. City would have high order places - for example chain restaurants. Larger places offer more, and have more functions, larger population, extra services. Not high order would have a surgery, post office - generic locations
A “Global City” is a city which has a strong node in the global economic system
Factors that influence whether a city is global or not
How are global cities ranked
The Global Cities index ranks 125 cities based on their human capital, business activity, information exchange, political engagement, and cultural experience. Currently London is the highest ranked city, Asia and europe dominate the top 10.
Water supply, away from floods, building materials, shelter from winds, fuel supply, natural harbour, flat land to build on
What are site factors
More so the physical characteristics of a location and the naturalistic features
The increasing number of people that migrate from rural to urban areas. They do this because of the mechanisation in farming
90% of the U.K.
Lives in urbanised areas
Urbanisation is increasing rapidly within