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Flashcards in Urology/renal Deck (26)
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Testicle not in scrotum by 4 mo


Cryptorchidism tx

Most descend spontaneously by 3-4 mo

If not palpable or atrophic → exploratory surg at 6-12 mo

Orchioplexy at 6-12 mo ↓ risk of torsion and subfertility


tx for Cystitis

Admit for infants < 2 months, immunocompromised, vomiting, inability to tolerate orals, lack of outpatient f/u, and failure of outpatient therapy

Ages 2-13 year→ 2nd or 3rd generation cephalosporin, add amoxicillin if suspecting enterococcal infection

Age > 13→Septra or cephalosporin

First episode in uncomplicated female should be treated 5-7 days

Young children, male adolescents, and children with recurrent, febrile, or complicated cystitis should be treated for 7-14 days

Renal bladder US indicated for first febrile UTI in kids under 2 who did not have normal prenatal screening US, for kids of any age with recurrent UTIs, and kids of any age with UTI, poor growth, HTN, or FH of renal disease

VCUG indicated for evaluation of possible reflux in kids of any age with > 2 febrile UTIs


Length for tx for Cystitis

First episode in uncomplicated female should be treated 5-7 days

Young children, male adolescents, and children with recurrent, febrile, or complicated cystitis should be treated for 7-14 days


Tx for Enuresis

High rate of spontaneous resolution by 15 yo

Behavioral changes: regular voiding and emptying bladder before bedtime, no fluids after 6pm

Rewards for voiding before bedtime, working up to rewards for staying dry overnight

Enuresis alarms for wetting > twice per week

Desmopressin for children with nocturnal polyuria and normal bladder capacity who have failed alarm trials



Inability to return foreskin over the glans from a retracted position

May present w/ swelling and tenderness of penis and band of circumferential tissue


Paraphimosis tx

Pain control, ↓ local swelling, manually return the foreskin over the glans



Inability to retract the freskin over the glans penis

May balloon with urination


Phimosis tx

Reassurance and hygiene education

Most resolve spontaneously

Topical steroids and manual stretching loosen the phimotic ring



Hypospadias presentation

Two urethral openings with second blind ending at nrml position

Dorsal hooded prepuce

Abnrml penile curvature

Difficulty controlling urine direction


Hypospadias tx

No intervention or surgical repair at 6-18 mo depending on severity

Avoid circumcision bc foreskin is used later in surg


Vesicourethral reflux

Retrograde flow of urine from bladder to ureter and renal pelvis

Graded on scale of 1-5 depending on extent of dilation of ureter


Vesicourethral reflux w/u

VCUG during w/u for UTI

Prenatal US can show hydronephrosis and should get f/u US postnataly w/ wo w/p VCUG


Vesicourethral reflux tx

Goal is to prevent pyelonephritis and kidney inj

Watchful waiting, abx pphx, surgical correction

DMSA scans to determine renal fn

Medical and surg mgmt >2-3 yo

Surg if UTI not responsive to abx


Vesicourethral reflux complications

Predisposes to pylonephritis by facilitating transport of bacteria from bladder to upper urinary tract


Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis (PSGN) presentation

Occurs following GAS pharyngitis of skin infection (impetigo)

Edema, gross hematuria, HTN, +/- proteinuria


Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis (PSGN) tx


Monitor for HTN and pulm edema→ Na and water restriction, loop diuretics if needed


Microscopic hematuria usually resolves in 3-6 mo

Proteinuria cis slower and cah still be present up to 10 yrs alter


Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis

Nephrotic sundrome, nephritic syndrome, microscopic hematuria +/- proteinuria


Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis tx

Treat underlying cause if present

Poor prognosis esp in pts w. nephrotic syndrome, ↑ CK, HTN or RPGN on renal bx → CKD

No definitive therapy but some pts respond to steroid


Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis w/u

Renal bx → tram track pattern

Serum complement levels often low


Testicular torsion presentation

Twisting of testicle on vascular pedicle

Acute pain, erythema and swelling of scrotum, N/V

Absent cremasteric reflex, testicle elevated ro lies horizontally


Testicular torsion w/u

Visualization in surg

Doppler US → ↓ or absent bloodflow, perigonadal fluid, Δ in gonadal location or size


Testicular torsion tx

Torsion is surgical emergency

Surg detorsion → fixation in scrotum (orchiopexy) or removal of testicle (orchiectomy)


Testicular torsion epi

MC in boys 12-18 yo

Can occur in utero and in neonates



Transilluminates on both sides of scrotum

Soft, NT

Tolerates feeds

Area of “swelling” typically involves only the scrotum


Hydrocele tx

Elective repair as clinically indicated