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Flashcards in USMLE RX Deck (17)
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1

How does thyroid hormone increase metabolism?

By increasing the rate of Na+/K+ transport in the cells via Na+/K+ ATPase

2

Which 2 tumors are famously associated with increased AFP?

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Yolk Sac Tumor

3

Which of the neural tube defects does not have increase in AFP and AChE?

Spina Bifida Occulta

4

Which neural tube defect is associated with a tuft of hair?

Spina Bifida Occulta

5

Which vitamin deficiency is associated iwth neural tube defects?

Folate/Folic Acid (Vitamin B 9)

6

What causes Dandy-Walker syndrome?

agenesis of the cerebellar vermis, resulting in a compensatory enlargement of the 4th ventricle

7

Neural crest cells develop into:

Schwann cells, melanocytes, enterochromaffin cells, PNS

8

what is the major neurotransmitter implicated in REM sleep?

ACh

9

What is the genetic inheritance for Huntington's? What chromosome is it on?

AD; Chromosome 4

10

what is the age of onset for Huntington's disease?

40 yrs

11

which nucleus in the basal ganglia is destroyed in Huntington's disease?

caudate nucleus

12

what is the significance of watershed zones? where do they occur in the cortical circulation?

Watershed zones are those areas of the brain most susceptible to hypoperfusion. they occur between the ACA and MCA and then again between MCA and PCA.

13

What are some hormones that increase serum glucose concentration?

  • T3/T4
  • epinephrine
  • glucocorticoids (cortisol)
  • glucagon
  • growth hormone

14

During which stage of lung development does respiration become possible?

cannalicular (weeks 16-25)

15

Decribe the vasculature of a bronchopulmonary segment?

artery in the center, veins and lymphatics run along the edges of each segment

16

Why is hydroxyurea used to treat sickle cell disease?

increases levels of fetal hemoglobin

17

Which lung diseases cause diffusion limitation?

Emphysema (decreases alveolar surface area)

CF (increases membrane thickness)