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Micro/Immuno Part 2 > Vaccines > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vaccines Deck (21):
1

adjuvent

a compound that increases the immunogenicity of an antigen
most common is aluminum salt Alum

2

passive immunization

-use of immune serum to give an immediate resistance to an infection
-tetanus Ig

3

active immunization

-act of immunizing with antigens to induce an immune response to a pathogen

4

live attenuated

-a weakened virus that can replicate to a limited extent

5

herd immunity

when enough individuals are immunized such that spread of an infection is slowed or halted

6

DPT

-older vaccine, used whole killed pertussis
-DTwP
-killed pertussis was really goo adjuvent
-strong innate immune response often led to fever
-some were severe
-many blamed vaccine for permanent disability

7

DTap

-replaced pertussis bacteria with acellular component-toxoid and other purified components
-uses aluminum salts
-much safer than DTP, less severe reactions
-immunity doesn't last as long

8

Tdap

-reduced concentration used in adolescents and adults

9

DT and Td

boosters

10

Multivaccines

-DTap
-IPV
-Hib

11

disease vs vaccine

-diphtheria/ tetanus death 1/20
-pertussis pneumonia 1 in 8, encephalopathy 1/2, death 1/20
-DTap- continuous crying, acute encephalopathy 0-10 in a million, no deaths proven

12

polo vaccine

-IPV- inactivated polio vaccine, early 1950s
-1952 58,000 cases of poli, 1994 0 cases
-almost eradicated worldwide
-OPV-oral polio vaccine-live attenuated in 1960s
-rare cases of it causing polio-discontinued. likely to have been immunocompromised parents
-contamination?-SV40 cancer causing virus? AIDS-thoroughly refuted

13

MMR

-live attenuated virus
-infants have maternal antibodies that would prevent virus from growing
-given at 12-15 months

-andrew wakefield sucks-mauscript very flawed and not many cases held up-they were also the ones suing. autism has increased even though vaccines decreased and thimersol decreased

14

measles

-otitis media 1/20
-pneumonia 1/20
-severe CNS 1 in 800
-death 1 in 3000
-SSPE 1 in 100,000

15

MMR vaccine

-fever, rash, malaise
-encephalitis or severe allergic reaction- less than 1 in a million

16

HPV

-cervarix and Gardasil
-both protect against 16 and 18
-70% of cervical cancer is caused by 16 and 18
-gardasil also protects against 6 and 11-males and females
-recommended for all girls age 11 or 12

17

Rabies

-deadly viral disease
-often transmitted by bite
-55,000 cases per year- asia and africa
-97% from dog bites
-vaccination of domestic animals prevents most human exposure

18

if exposed to rabies and not vaccinated

-cleanse, RIG at wound, and vaccine at day 0, 3, 7, 14

19

if exposed to rabies and vaccinated

-cleanse, no RIG, vaccine on 0 and 3

20

HDCV

-human diploid cell rabies vaccine

21

PCECV

-purified chick embryo cell vaccine
-can make AI against nervous tissue with this