Valvular Disorders Flashcards Preview

Alterations Resulting in Decreased Cardiac Output > Valvular Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Valvular Disorders Deck (35)
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1
Q

What disruption in the heart do valvular disorders cause in the heart?

A

Valvular disorders cause disruption of normal blood flow through the heart.

2
Q

How are valvular disorders distinguished?

A
  • based on the valve affected
  • the type of alteration
  • valvular disorders can be congenital or acquired
3
Q

What valves can be affected in valvular disorders?

A
  • mitral
  • aortic
  • tricuspid
  • pulmonary
4
Q

What type of alteration can occur in valvular disorders?

A
  • Stenosis

- Regurgitation

5
Q

Valvular disorders can be either?

A
  • Congenital

- Acquired

6
Q

Which are the most commonly affected valves (in valvular disorders)?

A
  • mitral

- aortic

7
Q

Why are the mitral and aortic valves the most commonly affected valves in valvular disorders?

A

because of the higher pressures and workload in the left side of the heart.

8
Q

What is stenosis?

A

narrowing; less blood can flow through the valve

9
Q

Stenosis causes?

A

Decreases cardiac output, increases workload, causes ventricular hypertrophy

10
Q

What can accompany stenosis?

A

Atresia (failure to open valve)

11
Q

Stenosis also causes and results in?

A

Pressures increase causing the chamber itself to enlarge leading to hypertrophy and increased oxygen demand, decreased CO, and eventually HF.

12
Q

What happens when valves are stenosed?

A

blood moving through the valve is reduced, causing blood to back up in the chamber just before the valve.

13
Q

Atresia refers to?

A

lack of the valve opening that would otherwise allow blood flow.

14
Q

In stenosis, the heart chambers are working harder. What happens to the heart chambers?

A

hypertrophy of the chambers develops

15
Q

Which arteries does the decreased cardiac output diminish blood delivery to?

A

Coronary arteries

16
Q

What happens to the heart without adequate blood flow?

A

the heart deteriorates

17
Q

As a result of (stenosis) and the deterioration of the heart, due to a lack of blood flow; what can develop?

A
  • Cardiomyopathy

- Heart Failure

18
Q

What is the most common valvular disorder in the US?

A

Aortic stenosis

19
Q

What is Regurgitation?

A

insufficient closure; bidirectional blood flow

20
Q

Regurgitation causes?

A
  • Decreases cardiac output (LV decompensation)
  • increases workload
  • causes ventricular hypertrophy and dilation
  • Increases amount of blood that must be pumped
  • increases the demand and O2
21
Q

What causes in the heart the amount of blood that must be pumped and therefore increases the demand and O2?

A

Regurgitation

22
Q

Valvular disorders may have what causes?

A
  • congenital defect
  • infective endocarditis
  • rheumatic fever
  • myocardial infarction
  • cardiomyopathy
  • heart failure
  • Hypertension
  • aortic aneurysms
  • Connective tissue disorders ( Marfan syndrome)
23
Q

The manifestations of valvular disorders are?

A

Manifestations vary depending on valve but reflect changed cardiac flow

24
Q

Diagnosis of valvular disorders?

A

history
exam
cardiac catheterization
EKG and other imaging

25
Q

Treatment of valvular disorders?

A
  • diuretic
  • antidysrhythmic
  • vasodilator
  • angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (stop the aldosterone, stops reabsorption of sodium)
  • beta-adrenergic blocker
  • anticoagulant
  • O2 therapy
  • low-Na diet
  • valve repair/prosthetic
26
Q

What does angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor do?

A
  • stop the aldosterone

- stops reabsorption of sodium

27
Q

When does Regurgitation occur?

A

occurs when the valve leaflets do not completely close, so blood continuously leaks through them.

28
Q

In what direction do valves normal allow blood to flow?

A

in one direction

29
Q

Incompetent valves allow blood to flow in what direction?

A

allow blood to flow in both directions

30
Q

During regurgitation, the increased blood volume in the heart causes the chambers to?

A
  • to dilate to accommodate the larger volume.
31
Q

The increased workload contributes to hypertrophy and it develops in?

A

The affected chambers

32
Q

An example of both stenosis and regurgitation present simultaneously is called?

A

mitral valve annulus

33
Q

When both stenosis and regurgitation develop simultaneously, which one develops first?

A

Stenosis and is generally severe

34
Q

As the pressure builds in the chamber pumping blood through the valve, what becomes damaged?

A

The leaflets become damaged

35
Q

What happens to the damaged valve leaflets?

A

cannot close properly, leading to regurgitation.