Flashcards in Valvular Heart Disease Pathology Deck (22)
How can hypertension affect the Left Ventricle? How does it do this?
causes concentric hypertrophy
additional sarcomeres/myofibrils are added to existing cardiomyocytes.
can also cause dilation of the heart.
What do we see in microscopic evaluation of hypertrophied tissue?
boxcar fibers. Note that there are the same number of myocytes. Only we see increased number of sarcomeres
What are major complications of hypertension?
-congestive heart failure
What is a common cause of right heart failure?
left Heart failure
Pulmonary Hypertension affects _______
Right heart failure that arises NOT as the cause of left heart failure is usually what?
Cor pulmonale. This is associated with pulmonary hypertension which usually arises as some sort of hypoxia (sleep apnea etc..)
So what is Cor Pulmonale?
What are major causes?
pulmonary and thoracic causes of right heart failure.
Causes- pulmonary vessel disease (stuff getting stuck in vessels), emphysema (hypoxia), chest movement alterations (hypoxia), etc...
Right Heart failure can lead to what problem in the liver?
nutmeg liver- blood pooled in the sinusoids of the liver.
What is the prevalence of bicuspid aortic valve disorder. More males or females?
more males than females
What are complications of bicuspid aortic valve disorder?
-reduced outflow leading to ventricular hypertrophy
-increased turbulence leading to valve thickening, stenosis, calcification etc..
Abnormal valves are usually either _____ or ______ and show increased susceptibility to what?
-nodular calcification, vegetation formation, infection
What is the most common cause of mitral regurgitation?
Mitral Valve prolapse
What genetic condition is often associated with mitral valve prolapse?
what are the most common causes of aortic calcific stenosis in:
-people 70 yrs of age
-most commonly arises with an underlying valve abnormality (i.e. bicuspid or bioprosthetic valve).
-most commonly involves a normal valve
What is pancarditis with respect to rheumatic fever?
inflammation in any layer of the heart 10 days-6 weeks after pharyngitis.
What is the major manifestation of chronic rheumatic heart disease?
mitral and aortic valve disease
What findings do we see in valve leaflets and cusps in rheumatic heart disease?
what findings do we see in chordae tendinea in rheumatic fever?
thickening, shortening, fusing- makes the valve less flexible
Buzzword for rheumatic fever?
fish-mouth stenosis on valves
What are the two major classes of cardiac valve vegetations?
infectious and non-infectious
what are complications of endocarditis?
septic emboli- plugs stuff up and spreads bugs everywhere. compromised valve function.