Flashcards in CV Anatomy Deck (23)
What are the main functions of the CV system?
-distributes dissolved gases and nutrients
-removes metabolic waste
-contributes to systemic homeostasis by controlling temp., O2 supply, pH, ionic composition, nutrient supply
Which is higher pressure, systemic or pulmonary circulation? Which ventricle pumps it and what physiological changes are there in that ventricle as a result?
LV- because it pumps harder it has thicker walls than RV
Systemic circulation in primarily arranged in _______ (parallel/series). Why is this beneficial?
It means that:
-oxygenated blood only visits one organ system before returning to pulmonary circulation
- changes in metabolic demand or blood flow in one organ don't significantly affect another
- blood flow to different organs can be individually varied to match demand
Name the four main vessels of the heart and basic function of each.
vena cavae- into RA
pulmonary artery- outlet vessel from RV
pulmonary vein- inlet vessel into LA
Aorta- outlet from LV
Name the four main valves of heart and their locations.
Tricuspid- between RA and RV
Pulmonic valve- between RV and Pulmonary artery
mitral valve- between LA and LV
Aortic valve- between LV and aorta
What are the three parts of the vasculature system and what do they do?
-Arterial system- distribution of oxygenated blood and nutrients
-Microcirculation and lymphatic system- diffusion and filtration system
-Venous system- collection of deoxygenated blood and wastes
What are unique feature of the Aorta?
-big fatty vessel (garden hose size) from L side of heart
-dampens pulsatile pressure
What are unique feature of the arteries?
thick walled, resist expansion
T or F arteries have thicker walls than arterioles
F. arterioles, though transporting less blood, have thicker walls-->more vascular smooth muscle
unique features of arterioles?
-real thick walls (vascular smooth muscle)
-highly innervated by autonomic nerves, circulating hormones, and local metabolites
-primary site of regulation of vascular resistance, via changes in diameter
What are unique feature of the capillaries?
-small vessels- walls are one epithelial cell thick (no smooth muscle)
-Big total surface area--> primary site of gas and nutrient exchange with interstitial fluid
What are unique feature of the Venules/veins?
-thin walls (compared to arteries) still have some smooth muscle
-not much elasticity
-primary capacitance vessels of the body (most of the blood volume is here)
-one way valves compensate for low blood pressure here and ensure blood flow in the right direction
What are unique feature of the Vena Cava?
-there is a superior and inferior
-its a big fatty vein
What are the three layers of arterial walls?
-Tunica adventitia (outer)
-Tunica intima (inner)
Which layer of artery walls is innervated?
tunica media. It controls the diameter of blood vessels, particulary resistance arteries. not present in capillaries
Why is the tunica intima important?
-important in regulation of blood flow
-site of atherosclerotic plaque formation
What is microcirculation defined as?
the vasculature from first order arterioles to the venules.
blood flow through capillary beds is determined by _______ and highly regulated via ________.
the pressure gradient
constriction/dilation of arterioles & precapillary sphincters
lymph is _____
excess interstitial fluid
lymph flows into lymphatic vessels in response to ______
increased interstitial pressure.
Lymph flow is driven by what?
contraction of smooth muscles in lymph vessels and contraction of surrounding skeletal muscle (one way valves present).
How do you get Edema?
interstitial fluid exceeds capacity of lymphatic system.