Cardiac History and Physical Exam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiac History and Physical Exam Deck (22)

What are the 5 categories of cardiac disease?


  1. CAD (Coronary Artery Disease)
  2. HTN (Hypertension)
  3. Rheumatic Heart Disease
  4. Bacterial Endocarditis
  5. Congenital Heart Disease

*having this card memorized is likely low yield, just for greater perspective*


Name at least 5 symptoms that could indicate an underlying cardiac etiology.

  1. SOB (w/ or w/out exertion)
  2. Arrythmia
  3. Faintness/Dizzyness
  4. Edema in extremities
  5. Leg pain with activity
  6. Chest pain/pressure
  7. Syncope
  8. Cyanosis


Name at least 3 different causes of angina (chest pain) with a cardiac etiology.

Cardiac Etiology

  1. Coronary artery disease
  2. Aortic valvular disease
  3. Pulmonary hypertension
  4. Mitral valve prolapse
  5. Pericarditis
  6. Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis


Name a vascular etiology of angina

  1. Dissection of the aorta


Name at least 2 Pulmonary etiologies for angina

  1. PE (pulm embolism)
  2. PNA (Pneumonia)
  3. Pneumo (Pneumothorax)
  4. Pleuritis


Name at least one cause of angina with a muskuloskeletal etiology

  1. Costochodritis
  2. Arthritis
  3. Muscular spasm
  4. Bone tumor


Name a cause of angina neural in etiology

  1. Herpes zoster


Name at least 1 cause of angina G.I. in etiology

  1. Ulcer or bowel disease

  2. Hiatal hernia

  3. Pancreatitis

  4. Cholecystitis


Name a cause of angina emotional or psychological in etiology

  1. Anxiety/Depression


What causes Angina Pecotoris (myocardial ischemia)?

Angina Pectoris

  • Supply-demand mismatch in the coronary arteries leads to hypoxia in the myocardium that results in pain


What is a positive Levine's sign indicative of?

Angina Pectoris (myocardial ischemia)


Describe the following as it relates to myocardial ischemia (Angina Pectoris)

  1. Location
  2. Radiation
  3. Type of Pain
  4. Intensity
  5. Duration
  6. Precipitated by
  7. Relieved by

  1. Retrosternal, diffuse
  2. Left arm, jaw, back
  3. "Achy", "Dull", " Squeezing"
  4. Mild to severe
  5. Minutes
  6. Effort, emotion, eating, cold
  7. Rest, nitroglycerin


What is Dyspnea?

Fancy name for Shortness of Breath


Name one cause of dyspnea with a cardiac etiology

  1. Left ventricular failure
  2. Mitral stenosis


Name three causes of Dyspnea with a pulmonary etiology

  1. Obstructive lung disease
  2. Asthma
  3. Restrictive lung disease
  4. Pulmonary embolism (PE)
  5. Pulmonary HTN


Name a cause of dyspnea with an psychological etiology



Name an environmental cause of dyspnea

High altitutde exposure


Name a hematologic cause of dyspnea



Cardiac Dyspnea

  1. Define Orthopnea
  2. Define Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND)
  3. Define Dyspnea on exertion (DOE)

  1. Orthopnea – shortness of breath when lying flat, relieved by sleeping on multiple pillows

  2. Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND) – shortness of breath that wakes one out of sleep

  3. Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) – shortness of breath with walking



  1. Define
  2. What is the key to diagnosing the type of syncope?

  1. Transient loss in conciousness due to cerebral hypoperfusion
  2. The pt's history


What is the clinical definition of Orthostatic hypotension?

After patient has been lying for 5 minutes, check blood pressure and pulse. Then have the patient stand and repeat measurements.

Orthostatic hypotension = 20 mm Hg drop in BP upon standing.


What are the 5 pulses a physician should palpate when doing a comprehensive cardiac physical exam

  1. Radial
  2. Brachial
  3. Carotid
  4. Dorsalis Pedis
  5. Posterior Tibial