Flashcards in Vine Disease Deck (36):
What are the four main types of vine diseases?
How are fungal diseases spread?
Typically associated with warm or damp climates, manifesting as mildew or mold.
Spread by wind and rain.
How are viral diseases spread?
Grafting or insects; often incurable, usually controlled by removal.
What are phytoplasma diseases caused by? How are they spread?
Caused by phytoplasms, which are pathogens similar to bacteria. However, they often exhibit similar symptoms to viral diseases, and are also spread by grafting or insects.
Original latin for Phylloxera?
Current latin for Phylloxera?
Cause, origin, and effects of Powdery Mildew?
Originally from the Americas; now worldwide.
Inhibits flowering, veraison, and creates off-flavors in the wine.
Powdery mildew is also known as what? Why?
During its anamorph (sexual reproductive) phase, known as Oidium tuckerii
Cause, origin, and effects of Downy Mildew?
Fungal (plasmopara viticola).
Originally from the Americas, now throughout Europe. Cannot tolerate arid climates.
Causes leaves to drop off, affecting photosynthesis.
What popular fungicide was created to prevent downy mildew?
Bordeaux Mixture (Copper Sulfate, water, lime)
Downy Mildew is also called what?
Peronospora (the name for the class of water molds to which it belongs[?])
Cause and effects of Eutypa Dieback?
Fungal (eutypa lata).
Common in Mediterranean climates.
Stunts shoot growth, may kill the infected cane. AFFECTS CROP SIZE, NOT QUALITY
Common name for Eutypa Dieback?
Cause, spread, and effects of Esca?
Seen worldwide, mostly in warmer climates.
In young vines: weakens growth, affects berry development, and discolors leaves.
In older vines, causes the vine wood to rot from
within; usually kills vines by 30 years of age.
Esca is also known as what?
What is unique about Esca?
It's the result of a complex of fungi, not a single organism.
Cause, origin, and effects of Black Rot?
Fungal (Guignardia bidwell).
Native to North America; has since spread to Europe.
Reduces yields. Easily controlled by sprays.
What is Bunch Rot?
A grouping of similar fungal diseases, generally reduce yields and affect the character of the wine.
What is the malevolent form of Botrytis cinerea?
What conditions are required for botrytis?
Warm weather and minimum 90% humidity.
Cause and effects of Pierce's Disease?
Bacterial (Xylella fastidiosa).
Renders vines incapable of producing chlorophyll; kills within 1-5 years. Incurable.
How is Pierce's Disease spread?
The glassy-winged sharpshooter
Cause and effects of Crown Gall?
Bacterial (Agrobacterium tumefaciens)
Manifests as tumors (galls) on the vine trunk, strangling the vine and killing the portions above. Thrives in cooler climates.
How is Crown Gall spread?
Propagation of infected budwood.
Crown Gall is also known as what?
Cause and effects of Bacterial Blight?
Bacterial (Xanthomonas ampelina).
Kills young grapevine shoots. Can be controlled by hot water treatments and copper sprays.
How is Bacterial Blight spread?
Rain and compromised pruning tools.
Cause and effects of Leafroll virus?
Viral; caused by a complex of at least 9 different viruses.
Reduces yields and delays ripening.
Incurable, but not terminal.
Cause and effects of Fanleaf Degeneration?
Viral; caused by a complex of different viruses
Deforms shoot growth, leads to poor fruit set and shot (seedless) berries).
How is Fanleaf Degeneration spread?
Soil nematodes that feed on infected roots. Affected vineyards must be removed entirely.
Cause and effects of Flavescence Dorée?
Delays budbreak, slows shoot growth, shrivels berries and kills whole bunches. Also may cause leaf discoloration, pustules and cracks in the wood, and may kill young vines.
How is Flavescence Dorée spread?
What are the major fungal diseases?
Powdery Mildew (Oidium)
Downy Mildew (Peronospera)
Eutypa Dieback (Dead Arm)
Esca (Black Measles)
What are the major bacterial diseases?
Crown Gall (Black Knot)
What are the major viral diseases?