Flashcards in Viti Deck (42):
At what temperature do vines emerge from dormancy in the spring?
What is budbreak?
The first stage of the annual lifecycle in the spring, when shoots and leaves emerge from the buds left after pruning.
What is the biggest climatic concern from budbreak to fruit set?
What is flowering, and when does it occur?
The blooming of the embryo bunches into flowers, occurring 6-13 weeks after budbreak.
How does Fruit Set occur?
The grapevine self-pollinates, and each fertilized bloom becomes a grape.
What is "shatter?"
Fruit set usually only occurs successfully at about 30%; the remaining embryo berries "shatter," falling from the cluster.
What is veraison?
The transfer of the vine's energy from vegetative growth to reproduction; indicated by the change in color on the grapes. This is also when sugars move from the leaves into the grapes.
What is the French term for harvest?
What is the ideal annual temperature for viticulture?
50-68F, with 57F being the sweet spot
What is the average summer temperature required to ripen red grapes?
What is the average summer temperature required to ripen white grapes?
Viticulture generally exists between which latitudinal parallels?
What is the California Heat Summation Index?
A scale dividing climates into 5 regions based on the number of Degree Days.
What is the equation for Degree Days?
# days in the month x mean # of degrees over 50F for that month. Month totals are added together to arrive at the summation.
What dates define the growing season?
April 1st to October 31st.
How many Degree Days in Region 1?
Less than 2500
How many Degree Days in Region 2?
How many Degree Days in Region 3?
How many Degree Days in Region IV?
How many Degree Days in Region V?
More than 4000
High soil pH results in what?
High grape acidity (low pH)
High soil acidity (low pH) can be counteracted by what?
What is selection massale?
Replanting from a number of vines throughout the vineyard, which allows the grower to select the best vines to propagate, but retains some genetic diversity in the vineyard.
What is clonal selection?
Replanting with one specific clone
What is the minimum amount of sunshine required to support viticulture?
1300 hours annually
How much rainfall does the average vine require in in a year?
Sugar, acid, tannin
What are the two main types of vine training?
What kind of pruning may be used with head-trained vines?
Spur OR Cane Pruning
What kind of pruning may be used with cordon-trained vines?
Spur pruning ONLY
What is albarello?
Italian for en gobelet
What is en vaso?
Spanish for en gobelet
Placed in a cow horn and buried underground for the winter; in the spring the horn is dug up, the manure mixed with water and sprayed on the vines.
Ground silica is mixed with rainwater and packed in a cowhorn, buried in the spring and dug up in autumn, then sprayed on crops.
Flower heads are placed in a stag’s bladder and applied to compost.
Flower heads are buried in the ground and then reapplied to compost
Applied to compost. A tea may also be made and sprayed on low vigor vines.
Bark is buried in the skull of a domestic animal, then applied to compost
Placed in cow mesentery (peritoneum, or abdominal lining), then applied to compost.
Flowers are juiced, then applied to compost.