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Flashcards in Viti Deck (42):
1

At what temperature do vines emerge from dormancy in the spring?

50F

2

What is budbreak?

The first stage of the annual lifecycle in the spring, when shoots and leaves emerge from the buds left after pruning.

3

What is the biggest climatic concern from budbreak to fruit set?

Frost.

4

What is flowering, and when does it occur?

The blooming of the embryo bunches into flowers, occurring 6-13 weeks after budbreak.

5

How does Fruit Set occur?

The grapevine self-pollinates, and each fertilized bloom becomes a grape.

6

What is "shatter?"

Fruit set usually only occurs successfully at about 30%; the remaining embryo berries "shatter," falling from the cluster.

7

What is veraison?

The transfer of the vine's energy from vegetative growth to reproduction; indicated by the change in color on the grapes. This is also when sugars move from the leaves into the grapes.

8

What is the French term for harvest?

Vendange

9

What is the ideal annual temperature for viticulture?

50-68F, with 57F being the sweet spot

10

What is the average summer temperature required to ripen red grapes?

70F

11

What is the average summer temperature required to ripen white grapes?

66F

12

Viticulture generally exists between which latitudinal parallels?

30-50

13

What is the California Heat Summation Index?

A scale dividing climates into 5 regions based on the number of Degree Days.

14

What is the equation for Degree Days?

# days in the month x mean # of degrees over 50F for that month. Month totals are added together to arrive at the summation.

15

What dates define the growing season?

April 1st to October 31st.

16

How many Degree Days in Region 1?

Less than 2500

17

How many Degree Days in Region 2?

2500-3000

18

How many Degree Days in Region 3?

3000-3500

19

How many Degree Days in Region IV?

3500-4000

20

How many Degree Days in Region V?

More than 4000

21

High soil pH results in what?

High grape acidity (low pH)

22

High soil acidity (low pH) can be counteracted by what?

Lime

23

What is selection massale?

Replanting from a number of vines throughout the vineyard, which allows the grower to select the best vines to propagate, but retains some genetic diversity in the vineyard.

24

What is clonal selection?

Replanting with one specific clone

25

What is the minimum amount of sunshine required to support viticulture?

1300 hours annually

26

How much rainfall does the average vine require in in a year?

20-30 inches

27

Heat affects:

Sugar, acid, tannin

28

Light affects:

Phenolic development

29

What are the two main types of vine training?

Head-training
Cordon-training

30

What kind of pruning may be used with head-trained vines?

Spur OR Cane Pruning

31

What kind of pruning may be used with cordon-trained vines?

Spur pruning ONLY

32

What is albarello?

Italian for en gobelet

33

What is en vaso?

Spanish for en gobelet

34

No. 500

Cow Manure
Placed in a cow horn and buried underground for the winter; in the spring the horn is dug up, the manure mixed with water and sprayed on the vines.
Stimulates growth.

35

No. 501

Horn-Silica
Ground silica is mixed with rainwater and packed in a cowhorn, buried in the spring and dug up in autumn, then sprayed on crops.
Stimulates growth.

36

No. 502

Yarrow Blossoms
Flower heads are placed in a stag’s bladder and applied to compost.
Compost Inoculation

37

No. 503

Chamomile Blossoms
Flower heads are buried in the ground and then reapplied to compost
Compost inoculation

38

No. 504

Stinging Nettle
Applied to compost. A tea may also be made and sprayed on low vigor vines.
Compost Inoculation

39

No. 505

Oak Bark
Bark is buried in the skull of a domestic animal, then applied to compost
Compost Inoculation

40

No. 506

Dandelion Flowers
Placed in cow mesentery (peritoneum, or abdominal lining), then applied to compost.
Compost Inoculation

41

No. 507

Valerian Flowers
Flowers are juiced, then applied to compost.
Compost Inoculation

42

No. 508

Horsetail Plant
Used to prepare tea.
Foliar spray against fungal disease.