Flashcards in Vini Deck (31):
Toasting increases lactones. What process decreases them?
What are lactones?
Compounds in oak responsible for the coconut-like flavor.
What are phenolic aldehydes?
Compounds in oak responsible for the vanilla flavor
What increases and decreases phenolic aldehydes?
Increase: low to medium toast, open-air seasoning
Decrease: barrel fermentation, heavy toasting
What is quercus alba?
American White Oak
wide grained, low tannin, sweet aromatics
What is quercus garryana?
White Oak from the Pacific Northwest.
similar to French oak
What is quercus robur?
European White Oak
wide grained, high tannin, fast-growing
found in Limousin, Balkan forests
What is quercus pedunculata?
What is quercus sessilus?
European White Oak
tight-grained, aromatic, slow-growing
found in Alliers, Vosges, Troncais, Nevers, Argonne, Bourgogne, Russian forests
What is quercus petraea?
What is quercus suber?
What is the primary yeast used to ferment wine?
Why is sulphur usually added to the juice or fermenting must?
Prevent oxidation and bacterial contamination, and ensure rapid fermentation.
How does the size of the fermentation vessel affect the heat produced by the fermentation?
The larger the vessel (and therefore the volume of the must), the hotter the fermentation.
What are the temperature extremes beyond which yeasts will not act?
Below 50º F and above 113ºF
What are the pros and cons of high heat fermentation?
Pros: increased color, tannin, flavor, oak influence
Cons: some volatile flavor contents may be lost, including fruit and freshness
What is pigeage?
Punching down the cap
What is remontage?
What is délestage?
The fermentation vessel is fully drained and the wine racked into a separate tank, then pumped back over the cap.
What is vin de goutte?
What is vin de presse?
What is soutirage? What is its purpose?
Provides aeration and clarification.
What is collage?
What are some common agents of collage?
Bentonite, casein (milk protein), isinglass (sturgeon bladder), gelatin, egg white.
What is used for süssreserve?
Sterilized fresh grape juice.
What are the two species of French oak?
What is the species of American oak?
What are the major differences in process for American oak barrels v. French oak barrels?
French oak is more porous, so it is typically split rather than sawn to prevent leakage. The staves are also typically air-dried.
American oak is sawn, releasing more vanillin and lactones; if kiln dried, the lactones are concentrated.
What is chauffage?
The first stage of bending staves: warming
What is cintrage?
The second stage of bending staves: shaping