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Flashcards in Vini Deck (31):
1

Toasting increases lactones. What process decreases them?

Open-Air Seasoning

2

What are lactones?

Compounds in oak responsible for the coconut-like flavor.

3

What are phenolic aldehydes?

Compounds in oak responsible for the vanilla flavor

4

What increases and decreases phenolic aldehydes?

Increase: low to medium toast, open-air seasoning
Decrease: barrel fermentation, heavy toasting

5

What is quercus alba?

American White Oak
wide grained, low tannin, sweet aromatics

6

What is quercus garryana?

White Oak from the Pacific Northwest.
similar to French oak

7

What is quercus robur?

European White Oak
wide grained, high tannin, fast-growing
found in Limousin, Balkan forests

8

What is quercus pedunculata?

quercus robur

9

What is quercus sessilus?

European White Oak
tight-grained, aromatic, slow-growing
found in Alliers, Vosges, Troncais, Nevers, Argonne, Bourgogne, Russian forests

10

What is quercus petraea?

quercus sessilus

11

What is quercus suber?

Cork Oak

12

What is the primary yeast used to ferment wine?

saccharomyces cereviseae

13

Why is sulphur usually added to the juice or fermenting must?

Prevent oxidation and bacterial contamination, and ensure rapid fermentation.

14

How does the size of the fermentation vessel affect the heat produced by the fermentation?

The larger the vessel (and therefore the volume of the must), the hotter the fermentation.

15

What are the temperature extremes beyond which yeasts will not act?

Below 50º F and above 113ºF

16

What are the pros and cons of high heat fermentation?

Pros: increased color, tannin, flavor, oak influence

Cons: some volatile flavor contents may be lost, including fruit and freshness

17

What is pigeage?

Punching down the cap

18

What is remontage?

Pumping over

19

What is délestage?

The fermentation vessel is fully drained and the wine racked into a separate tank, then pumped back over the cap.

20

What is vin de goutte?

Free-run

21

What is vin de presse?

Press wine

22

What is soutirage? What is its purpose?

Racking.

Provides aeration and clarification.

23

What is collage?

Fining

24

What are some common agents of collage?

Bentonite, casein (milk protein), isinglass (sturgeon bladder), gelatin, egg white.

25

What is used for süssreserve?

Sterilized fresh grape juice.

26

What are the two species of French oak?

Quercus rober
Quercus petraea

27

What is the species of American oak?

Quercus alba

28

What are the major differences in process for American oak barrels v. French oak barrels?

French oak is more porous, so it is typically split rather than sawn to prevent leakage. The staves are also typically air-dried.

American oak is sawn, releasing more vanillin and lactones; if kiln dried, the lactones are concentrated.

29

What is chauffage?

The first stage of bending staves: warming

30

What is cintrage?

The second stage of bending staves: shaping

31

What is bousinage?

The third stage of bending staves: toasting